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Using the combined gas law

  1. An enclosed gas(i.e. one in a sealed container) has a volume of 300 cm 3 and a temperature of 300 K . The pressure of the gas is 50 kPa . Calculate the number of moles of gas that are present in the container.
  2. What pressure will 3 mol of gaseous nitrogen exert if it is pumped into a container that has a volume of 25 dm 3 at a temperature of 29 0 C ?
  3. The volume of air inside a tyre is 19 litres and the temperature is 290 K . You check the pressure of your tyres and find that the pressure is 190 kPa . How many moles of air are present in the tyre?
  4. Compressed carbon dioxide is contained within a gas cylinder at a pressure of 700 kPa. The temperature of the gas in the cylinder is 310 K and the number of moles of gas is 13 mols of carbon dioxide. What is the volume of the gas inside the cylinder?

Molar concentrations of liquids

A typical solution is made by dissolving some solid substance in a liquid. The amount of substance that is dissolved in a given volume of liquid is known as the concentration of the liquid. Mathematically, concentration (C) is defined as moles of solute (n) per unit volume (V) of solution.

C = n V

For this equation, the units for volume are dm 3 . Therefore, the unit of concentration is mol · dm - 3 . When concentration is expressed in mol · dm - 3 it is known as the molarity (M) of the solution. Molarity is the most common expression for concentration.

Do not confuse molarity (M) with molar mass (M). Look carefully at the question in which the M appears to determine whether it is concentration or molar mass.
Concentration

Concentration is a measure of the amount of solute that is dissolved in a given volume of liquid. It is measured in mol · dm - 3 . Another term that is used for concentration is molarity (M)

If 3,5 g of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is dissolved in 2,5 dm 3 of water, what is the concentration of the solution in mol · dm - 3 ?

  1. n = m M = 3 , 5 40 = 0 , 0875 mol
  2. C = n V = 0 , 0875 2 , 5 = 0 , 035

    The concentration of the solution is 0,035 mol · dm - 3 or 0,035 M

You have a 1 dm 3 container in which to prepare a solution of potassium permanganate ( KMnO 4 ). What mass of KMnO 4 is needed to make a solution with a concentration of 0,2 M ?

  1. C = n V

    therefore

    n = C × V = 0 , 2 × 1 = 0 , 2 mol
  2. m = n × M = 0 , 2 × 158 , 04 = 31 , 61 g

    The mass of KMnO 4 that is needed is 31,61 g .

How much sodium chloride (in g) will one need to prepare 500 cm 3 of solution with a concentration of 0,01 M ?

  1. V = 500 1 000 = 0 , 5 dm 3
  2. n = C × V = 0 , 01 × 0 , 5 = 0 , 005 mol
  3. m = n × M = 0 , 005 × 58 , 45 = 0 , 29 g

    The mass of sodium chloride needed is 0,29 g

Molarity and the concentration of solutions

  1. 5,95 g of potassium bromide was dissolved in 400 cm 3 of water. Calculate its molarity.
  2. 100 g of sodium chloride (NaCl) is dissolved in 450 cm 3 of water.
    1. How many moles of NaCl are present in solution?
    2. What is the volume of water (in dm 3 )?
    3. Calculate the concentration of the solution.
    4. What mass of sodium chloride would need to be added for the concentration to become 5,7 mol · dm - 3 ?
  3. What is the molarity of the solution formed by dissolving 80 g of sodium hydroxide ( NaOH ) in 500 cm 3 of water?
  4. What mass (g) of hydrogen chloride ( HCl ) is needed to make up 1000 cm 3 of a solution of concentration 1 mol · dm - 3 ?
  5. How many moles of H 2 SO 4 are there in 250 cm 3 of a 0,8 M sulphuric acid solution? What mass of acid is in this solution?

Questions & Answers

Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
What makes metals better to use as wires than non-metals? (please link to bonding type)??? HELP
Yash Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry grade 10 [caps]. OpenStax CNX. Jun 13, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11303/1.4
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