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Results of testing the accuracy of image recognizer using test database and camera images.

Give Me Your Digits!: Results

Using test database as input:

In order to compare and test the accuracy of our classifiers we randomly select 500 test images and test their accuracy using our identification algorithms (classifiers).

Accuracy of Minimum and Average MSE with FFT and without FFT

Reducing size of database

In general we vary K the number of training samples we randomly select – this effectively reduces the number of images we compare our input to using classifiers. In general as you increase K (effectively increase the size of the database we are comparing to and thusly our chances for finding a good match) we increase the accuracy of our algorithms.

Pixel matching

Pixel matching and minimum MSE give the best results. Pixel matching does so well here because the test images and training images we’re created by NIST using the same image processing algorithm and thus match pixel to pixel accurately. It is interesting to note that using the FFT2D does not stray far from the pixel matching result. More extensive testing of different types of nearest neighbors and even neural networks is beyond the scope of this course and enters computer science.


Averaging gives a poorer result because the database per digit is so varied: in theory taking a general average of some digits gives extremely similar answers; this could be the reason for such poor comparison; ~50percent accuracy could signify half of the digits have this poor averaging characteristic. Averaging was originally implemented to rid the chance for out-layers giving erroneous nearest neighbor result, with our random selection of the training database and inputs we should actually be trying to find out-layers (exact) or close to exact matches to our image to get better results.

Using camera photo (image acquisition) as an input:

Due to limitation of resources we were only able to approximate this data by taking 10 digits (0-9) from 10 people and approximating the accuracy.

-FFT2 with minimum mean squared error gave approximately 95% accuracy with adequate spacing between digits – (if not spaced properly bound box will cut off adjacent digits skewing results).

-Pixel matching with minimum mean squared error gave approximately 80% accuracy.

Reasoning behind this is that the sequence and morphological operation parameters we used are not exactly the same as the ones NIST used to develop their database. Thusly the FFT2 will give more of and averaging effect yielding better results than just strait pixel matching alone.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Elec 301 projects fall 2008. OpenStax CNX. Jan 22, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10633/1.1
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