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A change in warfare technique early in this century was an important factor in changing social relationships in Greece. The horsemen of the battlefield, heretofore chiefly aristocrats because of the cost involved, were now being replaced by heavily armed and armored clusters of infantrymen called "hoplites" which were massed together, shields overlapping, in a "phalanx". The farmers were able to take over this role and the tendency toward the development of an aristocratic primacy was checked. Even then some social struggles developed. Peisistratus (560-527 B.C.) backed the cause of the poorer class of hill men against the aristocracy in one such uprising. It is possible that the psychology of the phalanx helped to promote the democratic ideal of all being equal, but contrary to what one might believe from perusing the classical school textbooks, Greek democracy was far from being total. Great numbers of slaves, which we shall discuss more in detail later, lacked all political rights; women were also disfranchised; and resident aliens were admitted to citizenship only very rarely. Actually, throughout this 6th century Greece citizenry was pretty much a closed and hereditary group united by ties of kinship.

NOTE: Insert Maps taken from Reference 97 ANCIENT GREECE, CENTRAL GREECE

Aesop, of fable fame, lived in the first half of this century, born as a slave, physically malformed, rough, dogmatic but brilliant. He became the Greek ambassador to Lydia, but later, after challenging the integrity of the priests of Apollo, he was sentenced to die and was thrown from a cliff. Thales, after receiving part of his education in Egypt, founded the Ionian School of Natural Philosophy and set up the first system of abstract geometry and is said to have predicted the eclipse of the sun which occurred in 585 B.C. Coins of small denomination were introduced in Greece at this time. Toynbee (Ref. 220 ) says that 550 B.C. marks the end of the two hundred years of the acme of the Hellenic civilization, but in view of the developments in the latter part of this century and the next, many would disagree.

Upper balkans

Early in the century the Scythians extended their power as far west as present day Hungary, but then they were decimated by a mysterious disease and they drew back to their homeland around the Black Sea. Herodotus mentions a disease of the Scythians which made them sterile, but it is not known if this was one and the same scourge which facilitated their defeat by Darius, when late in the century (513 B.C.) the Persians crossed the Hellespont, conquered the silver and gold rich land of Thrace, making a buffer zone against Greece. The remaining Scythians in the north fled, burning the land behind them. Thrace had been flourishing with an extensive trade and Greek styles and luxuries. Strangely enough, the Persian invasion only seems to have stimulated Thracian art. Macedonia continued its own more or less unmolested development. The Indo-European Illyrians had settled in present day Albania and their mines had attracted Greeks who settled near them on the Adriatic coast. (Ref. 92 , 171 , 28 )

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
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Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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