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NOTE: Insert 21: GREECE DURING THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR

Upper balkans

There was culture in Thrace and in the Greek colonies along the coast of the Black Sea. Many cities had developed in Macedonia and by 450 B.C., under the reign of Alexander I, a veneer of Hellenic civilization had appeared on the ruling classes of this area. (Ref. 218 )

Italy

Italy at this time was a motley of independent tribes and towns. There was still a northern Etruscan presence near the Po River, with various cities there. Virgil, the Roman poet of part Etruscan origin, describes his home of Mantua as composed of three races which apparently included Etruscans, Venetians and Umbrians, the latter two being Indo-European Italic speakers.

In Etruria, itself, in addition to Tarquinii and Caere, which we discussed at some length in the last chapters, we should now discuss Vulci, the city-state just north of Tarquinii.

In this 5th century B.C. it showed a marked Athenian influence, with the Athenian "black-figure" pottery flooding the community. No less than 40% of all Attic pottery that has been excavated in Etruria is from Vulci. But this city's real claim to fame was its bronze-work, with multiple cast bronze statues which were in turn exported afar, including back to Greece. It is possible that Servius Tullius who ruled as King of Rome after Tarquinius Priscus, was a Vulcentine with the original name of Mastarna. (Ref. 75 ) Early in the century the Etruscans, at the height of their power and allied with the Carthaginians, were at war with the Sicilian Greeks of Syracuse and their King Hiero 1. (Please see also 1, B, this chapter), and in a great naval battle off Cumae about 474 B.C. the Etruscan navy was destroyed. They were then forced to withdraw from Campania and this secured the liberation of Rome from Etruscan control. Even then, Cumae and Capua alike were still subjected to several years (430 - 423 B.C.) of fighting some hard-nosed mountain, Italic-speaking tribes, the Samnites. It was the descendants of the latter who eventually forged a new Campanian nation. In addition to the resistance of the Campanian Greeks the city-state of Caere was further damaged by an attack by sixty Syracusan warships which plundered harbors on the mainland and overran Elba and Corsica. (Ref. 75 )

Up to this point Rome had actually only controlled an area of about nineteen by nineteen miles, but they soon defeated the Sabines and expanded into their area. In spite of the smallness of Rome, this was the period of the Roman Republic. At the beginning (494 B.C.) there was the first "secession" in which the plebes withdrew from Rome to form their own city, forcing concessions from the patricians such as the right to have officers of their own, tribunes and aediles. In the Republic there were four classes of citizens; the Patricians, consisting of the superior clans which supplied Rome with generals, consuls and laws for five centuries (the Mantii, Valerii, Aemili, Cornelii, Fabii, Horatii, Claudii and Julii); the Equites, or business men; the Plebs, or commons; and finally the Slaves. The Roman Senate consisted of 300 members made up of clan heads from three basic tribes, although occasionally an Equite got into that body. As a result of a political battle for better laws for the Plebs, a commission was sent to Greece to study the legislations of Solon and other lawmakers and on their return, ten men (decemviri) formed a new code call "the Twelve Tables" which were approved by the Assembly and became the first written form of a legal structure of Rome (450 B.C.), serving as the basic law for the next 900 years. In 443 B.C. appeared the institution of censorship and in 432 the first law designed to check electoral corruption was passed. At the end of the century the long war of Rome against the Etruscan city, Veii in Tuscany was started. At the same time the Gauls descended again from the north and the Etruscans were squeezed in the middle. (Ref. 48 )

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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