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An overview of the chapter contexts for our Grade 10 Physical Science WebBooks.

Overview of chapters

Units

This chapter explains the huge role measuring plays in the Physical Sciences and the importance of units. Examples given illustrate that experiment and observation becomes meaningful when expressed in a quantity and its particular unit. The SI unit system with its seven base SI units is introduced. Details are provided for the correct way to write units and their abbreviations. For example: the SI unit for length is meter (lower case) and the abbreviation is “m”, while the volume of a liquid is measured in litre “ℓ”. When a unit is named after a person, then the symbol is a capital letter. The ‘newton’ is the unit of force named after Sir Isaac Newton and its symbol is “N”. When writing a combination of base SI units, place a dot (·) between the base units used. Metres per second is correctly written as m · s 1 . “m·s^-1”.

Currently learners are expected to round off correctly to 2 decimal places. The text in the learner's book illustrates the big difference to the answer when rounding off digits during a calculation. As an educator you often need to remind your learners only to round off the final answer. Learners also need to be able to write and translate data into the correct units and dimensions using scientific notation. To develop learners’ skills to do conversions and calculations use the table of unit prefixes, conversion diagrams and worked examples.

Chemistry overview

Matter and materials

What are the objects around us made of?

Learners will learn that all objects are made of matter, and that different objects are made of different types of matter or materials. These different properties will be explained by studying material’s microscopic structure (the small parts that make up the material). We will explore the smallest building blocks of matter, atoms, their unique properties and how they interact and combine with other atoms.

Revision of concepts related to molecules, their molecular and empirical formulae, and models to represent compounds will assure that all learners have the necessary prior knowledge to understand new concepts.

Classification of matter

To link to Grade 9, matter is classified according to its different properties. The diagram below summarises the sequence in which content, concepts and skills are developed in this chapter.

Diagram: the Classification of Matter

The terms: mixture, heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures are defined and explained in a learner-friendly way. To clarify concepts and support understanding, a lot of interesting examples linked to everyday lifestyle are given. For example: a pizza is described as a heterogeneous mixture, as each slice of pizza will probably differ from the next one, because the toppings like cheese, tomato, mushrooms and peppers are not evenly distributed and are visible. Ways to separate mixtures is extended by explaining the dialysis process and how centrifugation is used to separate cells and plasma in blood.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Mueller Reply
Purification of water by natural plants and wetlands
Gift Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Physical science grade 10 teachers' guide - siyavula webbook. OpenStax CNX. Aug 10, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11342/1.1
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