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Unlike radio, television is less successful in presenting straight music, but does well where there is a spectacle involved, as in opera and ballet. Other forms of stage shows also translate well into this medium, such as variety and music shows.

With most forms of sport, television succeeds in giving the viewer a seat at the event. With news and its background, television has borrowed the techniques of news-papers and translated them into sound and visual terms.

Colour, first demonstrated in 1928 by John Logie Baird, started coming into general use for television in the 1950’s.

The soap opera

The best known of all programmes is, undoubtedly, the serialised drama, often called a ‘soap opera’, so-called because in the early days many had a soap company as their sponsor.

The story lines and dialogue are simple. The characters are larger than life. The situations are credulous and sometimes far removed from real life, but it provides the audience with escapism and entertainment.

Tricks of the trade

A television performer can appear against a background apparently far from the studio. Originally this was done by back-projection – throwing film of the background on to a transparent screen behind the performer – but this effect can now be produced electronically by a process known as ‘Inlay’. A simpler device is superimposition, in which an image from one camera appears on top of the image from another.

In a sense the majority of television pictures are special effects, because the action takes place on a set in which scenery is used to create an apparent real situation. But as in theatre, the audience is really looking at a room with one wall missing.

Homework for the educator

Tape an episode of any soapie – any episode will do for our exercise

Watch the episode for a second time and make notes on the following:

the different characters and into which categories they fall, e.g. protagonists (the good guys) and the antagonists (the bad guys);

the purpose of each character in the series (is he/she a main character; supporting player; why is (s)he in the episode; what is he doing in order to develop the story or plot);

the different story lines of this specific episode;

the mood of each story line;

special effects ( lighting, explosions, sound, etc.);

the different locations the action took place;

the effective use of close-ups, wide shots, two-shots, etc.;



dynamic use of movement, stillness, sound, silence, light, darkness.


Show the learners the episode

Write aspects you want them to focus on while watching the episode on the board.

Show them the video again.

Class discussion

Discuss the following:

  • Focus: knowing wht the episode is about and how to transmit this meaning more effectively to the audience.
  • Tension: the “pressure” for response; this can take the form of a conflict, a challenge, a surprise, a time restraint or the suspense of not knowing. Tension is what works in a drama to assure the audience’s desire to know what will happen next.
  • Contrasts: Dynamic use of movement, stillness, sound, silence and light nd darkness.

Have the learners consider the following:

  • how were these elements organised in the episode?
  • how did these elements function to connect each of the scenes?
  • how the artistic intention of each actor is served by the use of these elements?

Have them make connections between their own dramas and the episode they have just seen.

Have them compare this soap opera to actual theatre:

  • difference in acting style;
  • plot complications;
  • dialogue delivery;
  • décor;
  • scene changes.


Volunteer a small group of learners to discuss and reach a consensus as to the focus (the key moment) of the episode.

Repeat with a different group of learners.

Ask them to choose a moment in the episode which they feel clearly communicated that focus.

Ask them to re-create that moment.

Have them present the scene to the rest of the class.

Repeat with a different group of learners.

Conduct a discussion exploring the following:

  • the various interpretations of the scene;
  • aspects of their own interpretation and their understanding of the episode;
  • the complex processes involved in creating a scene;
  • how what they saw relates to real life.


Have the learners complete the questionnaire after the class discussion.

Helpful Hints :

encourage participation;

select learners for responses;

be positive throughout;

be constructive in your response to the learners’ comments;

show the video as many times as you think necessary;

prepare the learners beforehand for the activities in order for them to anticipate the experience;

encourage some preliminary reflection and when the learners’ appetites for the activity and provide them with some valuable ‘hooks’, but do not spoil any of the surprises which the episode might hold in store for them;

since they are seeking to clarify and share their understanding of this aspect of dramatic work, it makes good sense to use drama strategies to aid them in exploring, expressing and sharing their different ideas – like the ‘Practical” exercise and questionnaire for example.

Questions & Answers

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Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
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In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
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can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
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Source:  OpenStax, Arts and culture grade 5. OpenStax CNX. Sep 22, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10977/1.2
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