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Moreover, the costs of saving jobs through protectionism can be very high. A number of different studies have attempted to estimate the cost to consumers in higher prices per job saved through protectionism. [link] shows a sample of results, compiled by economists at the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas. Saving a job through protectionism typically costs much more than the actual worker’s salary. For example, a study published in 2002 compiled evidence that using protectionism to save an average job in the textile and apparel industry would cost $199,000 per job saved. In other words, those workers could have been paid $100,000 per year to be unemployed and the cost would only be half of what it is to keep them working in the textile and apparel industry. This result is not unique to textiles and apparel.

(Source: Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas)
Cost to u.s. consumers of saving a job through protectionism
Industry Protected with Import Tariffs or Quotas Annual Cost per Job Saved
Sugar $826,000
Polyethylene resins $812,000
Dairy products $685,000
Frozen concentrated orange juice $635,000
Ball bearings $603,000
Machine tools $479,000
Women’s handbags $263,000
Glassware $247,000
Apparel and textiles $199,000
Rubber footwear $168,000
Women’s nonathletic footwear $139,000

Why does it cost so much to save jobs through protectionism? The basic reason is that not all of the extra money paid by consumers because of tariffs or quotas goes to save jobs. For example, if tariffs are imposed on steel imports so that buyers of steel pay a higher price, U.S. steel companies earn greater profits, buy more equipment, pay bigger bonuses to managers, give pay raises to existing employees—and also avoid firing some additional workers. Only part of the higher price of protected steel goes toward saving jobs. Also, when an industry is protected, the economy as a whole loses the benefits of playing to its comparative advantage—in other words, producing what it is best at. So, part of the higher price that consumers pay for protected goods is lost economic efficiency, which can be measured as another deadweight loss, like that discussed in Labor and Financial Markets .

There’s a bumper sticker that speaks to the threat some U.S. workers feel from imported products: “Buy American—Save U.S. Jobs.” If the car were being driven by an economist, the sticker might declare: “Block Imports—Save Jobs for Some Americans, Lose Jobs for Other Americans, and Also Pay High Prices.”

Trade and wages

Even if trade does not reduce the number of jobs, it could affect wages. Here, it is important to separate issues about the average level of wages from issues about whether the wages of certain workers may be helped or hurt by trade.

Because trade raises the amount that an economy can produce by letting firms and workers play to their comparative advantage, trade will also cause the average level of wages in an economy to rise. Workers who can produce more will be more desirable to employers, which will shift the demand for their labor out to the right, and increase wages in the labor market. By contrast, barriers to trade will reduce the average level of wages in an economy.

Questions & Answers

What is the formula for calculating elasticity
Destiny Reply
Change in Quantity/Change in price
Abdul
ok
Destiny
E=%∆ in Q/ %∆ in P
ashafa
what mean elasticity
Jimcaale
change in quantity divided by change in price
mukhtaar
ok
Abdul
price elasticity = Q2-Q1/Q2+Q1/2/ P2-P1/P2+P1/2
Wardan
second formula is change in q / change in p × Q(original)/ p (original)
Wardan
Elasticity is just a measurement of change influenced by change in price , income
Wardan
change quantity /change in price
Ayaan
ok
Muhammad
change in price change in quality
Muhammad
public economy vs public choice
martha Reply
cool n you
Godwin
nice
Saratu
thank God
Destiny
so wat is going on
Destiny
please understand change in demand.
Saratu
learning is going on please.
Saratu
demand changes when the price of the commodies in the market increaaes
Destiny
amd vise veser
Destiny
thank you.
Saratu
same to u
Destiny
I need help with PED and PES
XORO Reply
Price elasticity demand
Saratu
price elasticity supply
Saratu
What are the uses of stastitics in economic and business?
Mohamud Reply
Statistics helps in analysing various economic problems such as inflation, unemployment etc by looking at numbers, trends over the years.
Samuel
it also helps in summarising mass data like income, consumption etc into measures like per capita income and per capita consumptions which are more explanatory of how an economy is performing.
Samuel
Statistics is a data interpretation tool used for collecting, classifying and analyzing data. It is an indispensable tool for an economist to understand various business and economic problems and formulate policies to tackle with them.
Samuel
good answer
Destiny
how is the firm know elasticity
Shekwonudiza Reply
What is margin?
Crahmaan
wanna know about GDP ?
Wardan Reply
yes
Leela
i would like to know about GST rather
JNUI
i've gone through many articles related to GST. but my question is, earlier, when the amount of tax was so higher, who was the winner?
JNUI
and if the amount of tax is less, then somebody must be losing some money. so who is the loss maker
JNUI
also, what I don't understand properly is the 'input tax credit'. 🤔 and the e-way bill
JNUI
Gst is an essential Tax to boost up National income
Wardan
Gst isn't ever goes too high but in cases where there is a larger expectations on Sales revenue the gst increase and vice versa
Wardan
and yes it's the only time to make revenue for Central Government under some period and certain conditions u will learn
Wardan
yeah third one the Gst is low
Wardan
the central Government is responsible for such error to not be so prudent under those policies which are applied
Wardan
deductive and inductive
Mianosama
deductive and inductive are the parts of micro economics
Wardan
What are the key elements to consider when defining economics
Samuel
scarcity, means and end
Balogun
Samuel it is defined as study of house hold Management and money matters .
Wardan
scarcity is defined as the point where demand is greater than supply
Wardan
Use scarcity,means and end in your definition
Samuel
I really love this group
Samuel
Am new to economics and you guys are making it so interesting to study
Samuel
yup seems very interesting
Criminologist
Hahaha thanks buddy
Wardan
consider a market (where there are buyers and sellers ) situation , Let's make it funny to make u understand more easy that due to some political issues It is announced by the government that every store will be closed tomorrow , the citizens who are intelligent enough to predict consequences for it
Wardan
They will start buying more and more and due to those political issue some stores were closed and few were opened so at this point the demand for product or commodity (which people are willing to buy from stores) is greater than supply
Wardan
What is GDP
XORO
basic competitive model and the role of mechanism
SRIPRIYA Reply
explain the Adam Smith law of economics
Daya Reply
critical use of tariffs and non tariffs on imports and exports.
Natukunda Reply
Is harmful
amin
is good I guess
Audrey
it's very good
Godwin
why is the marginal curve u shaped
jake Reply
which of marginal curve?
begyere
marginal cost curve
jake
critical use of tariffs and non tariffs on exports and imports
Natukunda
what is the features of monopoly market? how it is different from monopolistic market?
alisha Reply
Monpoly market is a merket where the are many buyers, but only one seller. Because of the product is unique, and price discremination will be there.
Crahmaan
so how is it different from monopolistic market as she is saying
Samuel
or it is the same thing
Samuel
it marvellous
Amadu
thanks
Samuel
what is demand function
uju Reply
demand function is the mathematical representation of price and quantity demanded of goods and services at various prices at a given time .
King
Demand function is an equation which shows the mathematical relationship between the quantity demanded of a good and the values of the various determinants of demand.
Bon
why would division of labour without trade not work
Frederick Reply
as far there is an output as a goal... trade can't be exempted... because the sole reason for division of labour is for an effective and efficient output or outcome.. with such exchange trade has taken place. .
Agha-Aiguokhian
Please what is paradox of value
rakia
how does scarcity described as the efficient byway to allocate resources in a free market?
God Reply
scarcity gives or births a rational thinking to an individual or state economy in the distribution of revenue or income to the right channels of their ends... assuming the market has the features of a free market (free entry and exit, close substitutes, market price control etc)
Agha-Aiguokhian
wath is the meaning the macro economics
Jimcaale Reply
What is the way out of Scarcity
Samuel
a state referenced economic study, the manner or behavioural pattern of a state choice in making economic decisions in satisfying their ends
Agha-Aiguokhian
Thanks brother
Samuel
what is macro economics
Balogun
is the study of a national economy as a whole
Rhoda
thanks
Balogun
what is micro economics
Balogun
micro is not the study of the entire economy as a whole. that is macro economics.
Brock
micro focuses more on decisions that individuals and firms make but also uses examples of countries regarding production.
Brock
I think is why some people get mixed up.
Brock
thanks a lot
Balogun
yes ,I think that is right
rene
how would you use budget constraints to explain trade off?
begyere
what is the difference between wants and needs as in economics
rene
wants may be unlimited but needs have the limit on the base of effort to pay.
Dambar
who n who is d founder of economic. txn
Ojo
adam smith is the founder of modern economics but previous than we can read ununified economic thought of kautilya and others.
Dambar
thanx very much
rene
In economic, the idea of survival is real, meaning someone would die with out the needs being met.This includes things like food, water, and shelter. A wants, in economic, is one step up in the order from needs and is simply something that people desire to have, that they may, or may not, obtain.
Richlyn
In our place, we had a guy who started business by collecting funds from different people giving them back 15 percent of their money as monthly interest. He worked for 2 to 3 years. Then slowly he started reducing the monthly interest to 10 percent. just in not more than two weeks he started,,,,,,,,
Bona
claiming that his business has collapsed. what do you think is the secret behind this issue. what advice should you give to the victims. Cos most contributed 1000000 South Sudanese pounds.
Bona

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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of economics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11613/1.11
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