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Moreover, the costs of saving jobs through protectionism can be very high. A number of different studies have attempted to estimate the cost to consumers in higher prices per job saved through protectionism. [link] shows a sample of results, compiled by economists at the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas. Saving a job through protectionism typically costs much more than the actual worker’s salary. For example, a study published in 2002 compiled evidence that using protectionism to save an average job in the textile and apparel industry would cost $199,000 per job saved. In other words, those workers could have been paid $100,000 per year to be unemployed and the cost would only be half of what it is to keep them working in the textile and apparel industry. This result is not unique to textiles and apparel.

(Source: Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas)
Cost to u.s. consumers of saving a job through protectionism
Industry Protected with Import Tariffs or Quotas Annual Cost per Job Saved
Sugar $826,000
Polyethylene resins $812,000
Dairy products $685,000
Frozen concentrated orange juice $635,000
Ball bearings $603,000
Machine tools $479,000
Women’s handbags $263,000
Glassware $247,000
Apparel and textiles $199,000
Rubber footwear $168,000
Women’s nonathletic footwear $139,000

Why does it cost so much to save jobs through protectionism? The basic reason is that not all of the extra money paid by consumers because of tariffs or quotas goes to save jobs. For example, if tariffs are imposed on steel imports so that buyers of steel pay a higher price, U.S. steel companies earn greater profits, buy more equipment, pay bigger bonuses to managers, give pay raises to existing employees—and also avoid firing some additional workers. Only part of the higher price of protected steel goes toward saving jobs. Also, when an industry is protected, the economy as a whole loses the benefits of playing to its comparative advantage—in other words, producing what it is best at. So, part of the higher price that consumers pay for protected goods is lost economic efficiency, which can be measured as another deadweight loss, like that discussed in Labor and Financial Markets .

There’s a bumper sticker that speaks to the threat some U.S. workers feel from imported products: “Buy American—Save U.S. Jobs.” If the car were being driven by an economist, the sticker might declare: “Block Imports—Save Jobs for Some Americans, Lose Jobs for Other Americans, and Also Pay High Prices.”

Trade and wages

Even if trade does not reduce the number of jobs, it could affect wages. Here, it is important to separate issues about the average level of wages from issues about whether the wages of certain workers may be helped or hurt by trade.

Because trade raises the amount that an economy can produce by letting firms and workers play to their comparative advantage, trade will also cause the average level of wages in an economy to rise. Workers who can produce more will be more desirable to employers, which will shift the demand for their labor out to the right, and increase wages in the labor market. By contrast, barriers to trade will reduce the average level of wages in an economy.

Questions & Answers

Discuss the following questions in detail. 1, Suppose a firm operating under a perfectly competitve market structure is in its equilibrium. Does mean the firm is making excess profit?if no, show the possibilities regarding the amount of profit under equilibrium position. 2, Discuss the distinction b
Sura Reply
in long run a perfectly competitive firm is making only normal profits ,
Rather
Can I be part of this discussion?
James
of course
Rather
what is microeconomics
Jnana Reply
Workout. Show the steps clearly. 1, Suppose a firm in a perfectly competitive market structure has the following total cost function, ( TC=6000+4Q-24Q the power 2 + 4Q the power 3 ) if market ptice is 40, find A, Equilibrium level of output produced by the firm in order to maximize its profit. B,
Sura Reply
Discuss the following questions in detail. 1, Suppose a firm operating under a perfectly competitve market structure is in its equilibrium. Does mean the firm is making excess profit?if no, show the possibilities regarding the amount of profit under equilibrium position. 2, Discuss the distinction b
Sura
given the dimand equation QD=24-2p find the inverse dimand equation ?
Kadir Reply
you m.i.l subject
Raj
you know m.i.l subject
Raj
shift in demand curve
Adeoye Reply
Hi Adeoye
Oluyemi
nice to meet with you
Tanbir
hello...
Ajay
why in monopolistic competition the demand curve shifts to the left
Wani Reply
Because the players are few and due to the fact that their products are differentiated, they have market influence on either price to be charged or quantity to be offered to the market
Diyaolu
given Tc=10 +6Q-0,9Q2+0,05Q3 what is Tvc ? ATc ? mc?
Kadir Reply
Tvc=6q-0.9q2+0.05q3
Diyaolu
Atc=10/q-0.9q+0.05q2
Diyaolu
Mc=6-1.8q+0.15q2
Diyaolu
why demand curve shifts to left in long run
Wani Reply
because in long run when the demand of product is more so price will be more and due to increase in price of quantity demanded will be less and demand curve will shift left gradually
Iqra
Shift in demand curve is caused by a number of factors like taste, fashion, population amongst others and depending on whether the factors are positive or negative, that would determine the shift of the demand curve whether left or right and not whether short run or long run
Diyaolu
what is focus of microeconomics
Ebisa Reply
Why we do specialize?
Wai Reply
it coz of getting more outcome by injecting less time with the help of knowledge and skills along with less amount of mistakes
Sahibzada
specialization is a method of production wheraby an entity focuses on the production of a limited scope good to gain in a degree of efficiency
Mahmood
what is market structure
Mahmood
what is market structure
Rehab
what is monopolystic
Girma Reply
type of goods and services
Nesar Reply
There are two types of goods which are capital and consumer goods
Muafue
what is microeconomics
Mahmood
micro-economics is the study of how firms and households make decisions and how they interact
Saadaq
discuss separately how scarcity arises for house holds, business and government
Hawa
who gave the concept of perfect competition in economics?
Sandeep Reply
 Léon Walras gave the first definition of perfect competition   
ADITYA
no, it was me😂
Nancy
What is Indifference curve?
Ch
Perfect competition is an idealized market structure that achieves an efficient allocation of resources.
Daauud
what are the conditions for determining the nature of goods in partial differentiation
Unique
what is economics
Arman Reply
is a science which study human behaviour as relationship between ends and scarce means hav altenative uses
Herieth
what are the other factors of demand
Aysher Reply
what are other factors in demand
Aysher

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Source:  OpenStax, Microeconomics. OpenStax CNX. Aug 03, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11627/1.10
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