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Topic 1. chemistry of the cell

  1. What are the main chemical components of a cell?
  2. What are the structure levels of a protein?
  3. Give an example of the modular characteristic of a protein.
  4. What is a “Watson-Crick basepairing”?
  5. What are the differences between a DNA and an RNA molecules
  6. What are the main weak chemical bonds existing in living organisms?
  7. What are the characteristics of these bonds which determine their functions?
  8. What is the chromatin? the chromosome?
  9. Why is the eukaryotic genome much more compact than prokaryotic genome?

Topic 2. constancy of dna

  1. Describe some experiences showing that DNA is the genetic material.
  2. What is the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology?
  3. Describe Meselson&Stahl’s experience about DNA replication in E. coli; what is the meaning of this experience?
  4. What is a replicon?
  5. What are the factors needed for the initiation of DNA replication in E. coli
  6. How are the two strands of DNA molecule being copied from an origin of replication?
  7. What are the problems encountered by the replication machinery at the replication fork ? How are these problems resolved
  8. What are the roles of Helicase, Topoisomerase, Primase, SSB proteins, DNA polymerase III, RNase H, DNA polymerase I?
  9. What are the problems of finishing DNA replication in prokaryotes? eukaryotes? How are they resolved?

Topic 3. variations of dna

  1. What are the main causes of DNA variation? What are their roles in the living world?
  2. How are the mutations being repaired during and shortly after the end of the replication process?
  3. What are the main repair systems used by the cell to repair DNA damages between two replication processes?
  4. What are the differences between homologous and site-specific DNA recombination?
  5. What are the biological roles of homologous recombination? site-specific recombination?
  6. Describe the Holliday model used to explain DNA homologous recombination.
  7. Compare the Holliday model and the Double-Stranded Break (DSB) model of recombination.
  8. What are the functions of RecBCD complex, RecA, RuvAB and RuvC in the homologous recombination in E. coli?
  9. What are the functions of SSR recombinases in site-specific recombination?
  10. What are transposons? How are they being classified?
  11. What are the differences between replicative and non-replicative transposition?
  12. How does a polyA retrotransposon transpose?
  13. How is a retroviral-like retrotransposon transpose?

Topic 4. gene expression – transcription

  1. What are the characteristics of transcriptional process that distinguish it from DNA replication?
  2. What are the components of prokaryotic RNA polymerase? What are their functions?
  3. What are the structure and functions of a promoter?
  4. How does the RNA polymerase initiate the transcription?
  5. How is the RNA molecule being elongated?
  6. What are the mechanisms of transcription termination?
  7. What are the eukaryotic RNA polymerases? What are their functions?
  8. What are the DNA sequences involved in transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II?
  9. How does RNA polymerase II function during transcription?
  10. What are the post-transcriptional mRNA processing’s?
  11. Why is RNA splicing a crucial step in gene expression in eukaryotes?
  12. What is a spliceosome? How does it function during splicing process?

Topic 5. protein synthesis

  1. What are the characteristics of the Genetic Code?
  2. What is the Wobble concept?
  3. What are the disadvantages of translational compared to replicational and transcriptional processes?
  4. What are the roles of tRNA, rRNA, mRNA?
  5. What is an ORF? What are the criteria used to define it?
  6. What is the 5’ end structure of a prokaryotic (and eukaryotic) mRNA necessary to its translation?
  7. What are the functions of a ribosome?
  8. What are the structural characteristics of a tRNA?
  9. How is an amino acid attached to a tRNA? What determines the specificity of the reaction?
  10. How is the translational process initiated in prokaryote? in eukaryote?
  11. What are the main steps of translational elongation?
  12. How is the translational process terminated?

Topic 6. regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes

  1. What are the purposes of the regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes? in eukaryotes ?
  2. What are the main mechanisms of gene expression regulation in prokaryotes? in eukaryotes ?
  3. What do you think which determine the differences in the regulation of gene expression between these two groups?
  4. What is a positive control of gene expression? a negative control
  5. What are the structural and functional characteristics of an operon?
  6. What is a catabolite repression?
  7. What is “attenuation” in terms of regulation of gene expression?
  8. How does the alternative use of σ factors fit the purpose of the regulation of gene expression in prokaryote?

Topic 7. regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes

  1. What are the structural characteristics that determine different levels of the control of gene expression in eukaryotes?
  2. What is an epigenetic inheritance? What are the basic mechanisms underlying epigenetic in heritance
  3. Give an example for epigenetic inheritance through histone modifications and DNA methylation?
  4. What are the roles of TRANS proteins and CIS sequences in the control of transcriptional initiation?
  5. What are the respective roles of general and specific transcription factors in initiating the transcription process?
  6. What are the common modules of transcription factors?
  7. How can alternative splicing generate more than one transcript from one gene?
  8. How can transcription factors act at distance?
  9. What are the determinants of mRNA stability?
  10. What are the main mechanisms of post-translational control?
  11. What are siRNAs? miRNAs? What are their roles in the control of gene expression?

Topic 8. methods

  1. What are the main steps of a nucleic acid extraction protocol?
  2. What is electrophoresis used for?
  3. How can one determine the concentration of a double-stranded DNA by spectrophotometric analysis?
  4. What are the enzymes used for PCR technique? What are their characteristics?
  5. What are the principles of quantitative PCR based on the use of Taqman probe?
  6. What are Molecular cloning techniques used for?
  7. What is a vector? What are its characteristics?
  8. What are the main steps of Molecular cloning protocols?
  9. How is a PCR performed?
  10. What are the main steps of Southern blotting?
  11. What is the principle of Dideoxy sequencing? How is it applied in automatic sequencing?
  12. Give a definition for Genomics? Transcriptomics? Proteomics? Metabolomics? Phenomics?
  13. How can Bioinformatics be used to predict gene function from their structures?
  14. What are microarrays used for?
  15. What is the principle of the Yeast Two-hybrid system?

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Molecular biology of the gene. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10799/1.1
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