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Activity 2:

To analyse a situation in order to determine whether the conditions are conducive to the outbreak of a cholera epidemic

[lo 1.7; 3.2]

Study the translated report from Die Burger of 31 December 2004 and:

  • Have a group discussion on the likelihood of a cholera epidemic after this natural disaster.
  • Offer suggestions on how such an epidemic could possibly be prevented in this case.
  • Give feedback to the rest of the class and write a short report on your findings.

120 000 +

André Gouws and Reuters

CAPE TOWN - Warnings yesterday that yet another tsunami could hit the Asian coast, caused panic-stricken people in Sri Lanka, India and Thailand to flee into the hills while the death toll in the weekend’s terrifying tsunami disaster rose to more than 120 000.

One of the South African victims, Mr Morris Isaacson (51) from Sea Point, was buried yesterday, but many families still do not know what has become of their loved ones. According to a report issued by the department of foreign affairs, there are still 14 South Africans who have been confirmed as missing in Thailand, and two in India.

Mrs Dilly Findlay (45) of Simon’s Town is still missing in Thailand.

This is a disaster of such indescribable magnitude that it is difficult to understand all that has happened. The World Health Organisation yesterday reported in a statement that 5 million people in the disaster-stricken countries no longer had any access to basic necessities.

Yesterday’s warning about a possible second tsunami followed after an earthquake occurred in the ocean along the coast of Sumatra, registering 5,2 on the Richter scale.

According to Mr Mario Adamo, who used to live in Durbanville but who now owns a restaurant in Phuket, the tsunami warnings were broadcast on television.

Total panic followed. Mr Adamo said that the authorities had evacuated everyone from the beach area, and many others had taken refuge on the surrounding hills. “The atmosphere here is ominous. The weather is strange and it seems as if it could rain at any moment.” He explained that some people had been sitting on the hills since Sunday, and that they were still refusing to come down because they were afraid of what could happen again.

Adamo and his wife, Mrs Annette Adamo, have helped many South Africans to be reunited with their families, amongst others Dr Philip Finestone (42), and his four children, Sarah (9), Emma (7), Isabella (5) and Sophia (2). They arrived in South Africa yesterday on an emergency flight. Mrs Rickie Finestone (38) is seriously injured and has had to remain on Phuket where she is being treated, said Dr Finestone’s brother, Mr Brett Finestone.

Adamo reported that as far as he knew, all the survivors had been taken from the island Phi Phi, where the destruction had been the worst of all. At present there were only soldiers who were burying the corpses.

According to Adamo the authorities have begun pumping the water out of a flooded underground supermarket on Phuket in order to remove the corpses.

Most of the fatalities were in Indonesia, where more than 80 000 people died. Thousands of corpses have been buried in mass graves. The air is filled with the stench of rotting corpses.

Approximately 5 000 foreigners – half of them from Sweden and Germany – are still missing, especially in Thailand. The Thai authorities have confirmed that 2 230 foreigners have died.

The true extent of the disaster will only be known in some weeks to come, since many isolated areas have not yet been reached.

From: Die Burger , 31 December 2004

  • Typical symptoms in a cholera patient:
  • nausea and vomiting;
  • stomach cramps;
  • leg cramps;
  • diarrhoea and a very dry skin.
  • Treatment:

Possible dehydration must be counteracted. Prepare a saline solution with treated water and administer it to the patient continuously.

  • Prevention:
  • avoid contact with water from dams, lakes or rivers in cholera areas;
  • if one is uncertain of the quality of the water, one should boil it or add a small quantity of bleach to it;
  • wash vegetables and fruit and/or cook it in treated water;
  • always ensure that one’s sanitary habits are sound.

Activity 3:

To describe a concept

[lo 3.2; 3;3]

  • Briefly describe what you understand under the concept “sanitary habits”.


LO 1


The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate geographical and environmental concepts and processes.

We know this when the learner:

1.1 with guidance, selects and uses sources of useful geographical information [finds sources];

1.2 distinguishes between facts and opinions [works with sources];

1.3 categorises information [works with sources];

1.4 uses an index to find places on global atlas maps [works with sources];

1.6 identifies and explores possible solutions to problems [answers the question];

1.7 demonstrates knowledge and under-standing of the issue through projects, discussion, debate and charts [communicates the answer].

LO 3


The learner will be able to make informed decisions about social and environmental issues and problems.

We know this when the learner:

3.1 identifies challenges to societies and settlements, with a focus on the spread of diseases [identify the issue];

3.2 explains the factors that cause some people to be more at risk of disease than others [factors affecting the issue];

3.3 suggests the best way, from a range of alternatives, to reduce risks of disease [makes choices].



  • Very good; wet; stagnant water; sewage systems destroyed; no fresh water
  • Transporting fresh water; monitor symptoms; isolate cases; evacuate people from danger areas


  • Bathroom activities
  • Bodily waste (solid or fluid) removed and purified by means of established enclosed systems

Questions & Answers

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s. Reply
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are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
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s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
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Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Source:  OpenStax, Social sciences: geography grade 5. OpenStax CNX. Sep 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10986/1.2
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