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Innovation: an effective innovation system

Regional innovation systems have been shown to be the motors of the Knowledge Economy (UNIEDO 2003). A region’s ability to develop new products and services and improve upon the manner it produces existing ones is key in determining its economic fortune. Along with companies these systems include interrelated actors including universities, research centres, knowledge services etc.

Infrastructure: a modern and adequate information infrastructure

To facilitate innovation and create clusters of growing knowledge-based businesses an infrastructure is required for its support. Infrastructure not only encompasses physical entities such as development facilities, offices and ICT systems. ‘Soft’ infrastructure is equally critical. Important examples include not only enterprise and specialist support such as legal services but also knowledge networks of individuals and organisations that disseminate and exploit knowledge and opportunities.

Economic and institutional regime

The economic environment of a nation or region plays an important part in the growth of the Knowledge Economy. Factors such as taxation, strength of Intellectual Property Rights, export controls/tariffs etc. are examples of this economic and institutional regime. Many of these aspects of the Knowledge Economy are managed at the UK or EU level. They therefore fall outside the devolved powers of the National Assembly for Wales and regional actors. It is however, important to understand how they affect the regional Knowledge Economy in order to maximise potential growth and opportunities.

Using these pillars the KAM system tracks variety of including: literacy of population; availability of ICT; levels of entrepreneurship and innovation; proportion of population with higher-level skills etc. As these indices are easily collated and comparable between nations it makes benchmarking straightforward. However, as the methodology was developed to assist developing countries, many of the indices used are less relevant to developed nations.

Threshold of a knowledge economy

While the concept of the Knowledge Economy is clear, the challenge remains in determining the extent to which an economy is knowledge intensive (Shapira et al., 2005). A practical approach toward defining whether an economy is ‘knowledge-based’ is to determine whether it exceeds a threshold of knowledge intensiveness. Using their sectoral definition of the Knowledge Economy the OECD (OECD 1996) provides such an approach, defining a knowledge-based economy as being:

..an economy in which more than 40% of employees are employed in high technology manufacturing and knowledge-intensive industries

Cooke and De Laurentis (2003) have used this approach to study the role of the Knowledge Economy in various European regions demonstrating significantly varying knowledge intensiveness across the EU.

This approach of tracking knowledge intensive sectors provides a useful metric in that it makes use of official statistics that are consistent across national and regional boundaries. However, a sectoral approach is limiting in that the Knowledge Economy is relevant to all industries, not only those included in the definitions provided by EUROSTAT and the OECD (1996). This applies in particular to those sectors not related to science, engineering and technology (SET).

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A study of how a region can lever participation in a global network to accelerate the development of a sustainable technology cluster. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11417/1.2
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