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Innovation: an effective innovation system

Regional innovation systems have been shown to be the motors of the Knowledge Economy (UNIEDO 2003). A region’s ability to develop new products and services and improve upon the manner it produces existing ones is key in determining its economic fortune. Along with companies these systems include interrelated actors including universities, research centres, knowledge services etc.

Infrastructure: a modern and adequate information infrastructure

To facilitate innovation and create clusters of growing knowledge-based businesses an infrastructure is required for its support. Infrastructure not only encompasses physical entities such as development facilities, offices and ICT systems. ‘Soft’ infrastructure is equally critical. Important examples include not only enterprise and specialist support such as legal services but also knowledge networks of individuals and organisations that disseminate and exploit knowledge and opportunities.

Economic and institutional regime

The economic environment of a nation or region plays an important part in the growth of the Knowledge Economy. Factors such as taxation, strength of Intellectual Property Rights, export controls/tariffs etc. are examples of this economic and institutional regime. Many of these aspects of the Knowledge Economy are managed at the UK or EU level. They therefore fall outside the devolved powers of the National Assembly for Wales and regional actors. It is however, important to understand how they affect the regional Knowledge Economy in order to maximise potential growth and opportunities.

Using these pillars the KAM system tracks variety of including: literacy of population; availability of ICT; levels of entrepreneurship and innovation; proportion of population with higher-level skills etc. As these indices are easily collated and comparable between nations it makes benchmarking straightforward. However, as the methodology was developed to assist developing countries, many of the indices used are less relevant to developed nations.

Threshold of a knowledge economy

While the concept of the Knowledge Economy is clear, the challenge remains in determining the extent to which an economy is knowledge intensive (Shapira et al., 2005). A practical approach toward defining whether an economy is ‘knowledge-based’ is to determine whether it exceeds a threshold of knowledge intensiveness. Using their sectoral definition of the Knowledge Economy the OECD (OECD 1996) provides such an approach, defining a knowledge-based economy as being:

..an economy in which more than 40% of employees are employed in high technology manufacturing and knowledge-intensive industries

Cooke and De Laurentis (2003) have used this approach to study the role of the Knowledge Economy in various European regions demonstrating significantly varying knowledge intensiveness across the EU.

This approach of tracking knowledge intensive sectors provides a useful metric in that it makes use of official statistics that are consistent across national and regional boundaries. However, a sectoral approach is limiting in that the Knowledge Economy is relevant to all industries, not only those included in the definitions provided by EUROSTAT and the OECD (1996). This applies in particular to those sectors not related to science, engineering and technology (SET).

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A study of how a region can lever participation in a global network to accelerate the development of a sustainable technology cluster. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11417/1.2
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