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Theoretical perspectives on social movements

Most theories of social movements are called collective action theories, indicating the purposeful nature of this form of collective behavior. The following three theories are but a few of the many classic and modern theories developed by social scientists.

Resource mobilization

McCarthy and Zald (1977) conceptualize resource mobilization theory    as a way to explain movement success in terms of the ability to acquire resources and mobilize individuals. Resources are primarily time and money, and the more of both, the greater the power of organized movements. Numbers of social movement organizations (SMOs), which are single social movement groups, with the same goals constitute a social movement industry (SMI). Together they create what McCarthy and Zald (1977) refer to as "the sum of all social movements in a society."

Resource mobilization and the civil rights movement

An example of resource mobilization theory is activity of the civil rights movement in the decade between the mid 1950s and the mid 1960s. Social movements had existed before, notably the Women's Suffrage Movement and a long line of labor movements, thus constituting an existing social movement sector , which is the multiple social movement industries in a society, even if they have widely varying constituents and goals. The civil rights movement had also existed well before Rosa Parks refused to give up her bus seat to a white man. Less known is that Parks was a member of the NAACP and trained in leadership (A&E Television Networks, LLC. 2014). But her action that day was spontaneous and unplanned (Schmitz 2014). Her arrest triggered a public outcry that led to the famous Montgomery bus boycott, turning the movement into what we now think of as the "civil rights movement" (Schmitz 2014).

Mobilization had to begin immediately. Boycotting the bus made other means of transportation necessary, which was provided through car pools. Churches and their ministers joined the struggle, and the protest organization In Friendship was formed as well as The Friendly Club and the Club From Nowhere. A social movement industry    , which is the collection of the social movement organizations that are striving toward similar goals, was growing.

Martin Luther King Jr. emerged during these events to become the charismatic leader of the movement, gained respect from elites in the federal government, and aided by even more emerging SMOs such as the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), among others. Several still exist today. Although the movement in that period was an overall success, and laws were changed (even if not attitudes), the "movement" continues. So do struggles to keep the gains that were made, even as the U.S. Supreme Court has recently weakened the Voter Rights Act of 1965, once again making it more difficult for black Americans and other minorities to vote.

Questions & Answers

Sociology differences in upper primary classes
ATWIINE Reply
what was the main aim of Emile Durkheim in his study of society
Joseph Reply
his viewpoint is the parts of society are interdependent. each part influence the others.
manisha
he believed to study society one have to look beyind individual to social facts
manisha
compare and contrast the method use by positivism and interpretivist theories in sociology
Canny Reply
does anyone know what alienation under karl marx theory?
manisha Reply
In essence it means that a human becomes a sort of robot for big organization
Shabbir
a situation where he gets separated from what he did
Sachin
As a worker/labour for capatilist society, he starts to forget his basic human instincts because he does not have time to think freely and aa a result he's not autonomous anymore
Shabbir
Got it?
Shabbir
post Industrial revolution , men started to work only for a company , they are now not producing a finished product like they used to do , so now they cant be proud of what they did , basically they cant differentiate or pick their work in the finished product thus alienated from work
Sachin
correct me If I am wrong
Sachin
yes got it thank you.
manisha
:)
Sachin
marx wanted a society where a man can work in the morning and have recreation in the evening also bring out his creativity
vijay
and does not end up in machine like or routine line production.
vijay
symbolic interaction
Carolyn Reply
its a theory which focus on one to one interactions. it examine the relationship of individuals within society. George herbert mead is the founder of this.
manisha
Symbolic interactionism is a sociological theory that analyzes society according to the subjective meaning they give to the objects.
Sadiq
social change theory
Ghulammurtaza
Pls importance of sociology
OLAOYE Reply
What are the importance of studein sociology
OLAOYE Reply
Procration
Ibrahim Reply
social verstehenian' s
Umar Reply
what means of social verstehenian' s
Hirsi
what is population dynamic
Bilal
Verstehenian is a German term that simply means understand or perceive on a phenomenal
Ibrahim
where is born Carl max?
Safi Reply
Germany
Abdur
plz tell me about karl max
Ramesh
what do you now about Karl max
Tilahun
classic sociologist
Gözde
A man against capitalism.
favert
what about his work on religion
Tilahun
secularism and socialism are are aposit the capitalism
Ghulammurtaza
can we discusses here about social statistics
jhamandas Reply
As a nursing proffessional,why is it important to study sociology?
AnnaRosa Reply
Oh, forgive my manners guys..greetings to everyone, im a student nurse in my second year doing introduction to sociology..hoping you guys can help perhaps?
AnnaRosa
It's necessary to hv a good knowledge regarding the social aspect of the day to day life. Man is gregarious in nature. therefore sufficient knowledge regarding the society and social relationships is must.
saifuddin
The scope of sociology as a mother social science is increasing day by day , therefore the need is felt in many sectors/fields to teach it as one subject to introduction to beware the students of the basic scientific knowhow of society they are living in.
saifuddin
i support that idea because the learning of society is very crucial
Hirsi
thank you guys..
AnnaRosa
population dynamics some information please
Bilal
what is education ?
Kifayat
Marriage And Kingship
Kamran
Mass Communication
Kamran
in nursing profession one needs to commumnicate with others and by studying sociology you will become social by nature as it drags one to realise social issues. well i was not know in nursuing also ppl read sociology.
manisha
we know some facts in our mind. but there is need to be something to click those in our mind. sociology will make you aware about the so called society which pressure one to be another.
manisha
according akinsola..how did he defined sociology
derric Reply
?
Kifayat
Please keep in mind that it's not allowed to promote any social groups (whatsapp, facebook, etc...) or exchange phone numbers or email addresses on our platform.
QuizOver Reply
guys can anyone please help me with non material components of culture.....how the components are reflected and expressed in culture?
Thoriso Reply
Thoriso Stamier Components of non material culture are expressed in terms of actions. we do it, we believe in, we speak, we have ideas, we express in language form , values in the society, symbols related to meanings, and so on...
saifuddin
worship, morals, or religion as a whole is also non material culture. we understand symbols. we have institutions for several basic needs and purposes. etc
saifuddin
thank u jhamandas. bro its seven years I hv had may M.A in Sociology. Now bcoz of little time for to study, I have forgotten many things. Now want to revise the course but.... anyway this foram is a rich source. discussion makes the way better.
saifuddin

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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology 2e. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6
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