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Theoretical perspectives on social movements

Most theories of social movements are called collective action theories, indicating the purposeful nature of this form of collective behavior. The following three theories are but a few of the many classic and modern theories developed by social scientists.

Resource mobilization

McCarthy and Zald (1977) conceptualize resource mobilization theory    as a way to explain movement success in terms of the ability to acquire resources and mobilize individuals. Resources are primarily time and money, and the more of both, the greater the power of organized movements. Numbers of social movement organizations (SMOs), which are single social movement groups, with the same goals constitute a social movement industry (SMI). Together they create what McCarthy and Zald (1977) refer to as "the sum of all social movements in a society."

Resource mobilization and the civil rights movement

An example of resource mobilization theory is activity of the civil rights movement in the decade between the mid 1950s and the mid 1960s. Social movements had existed before, notably the Women's Suffrage Movement and a long line of labor movements, thus constituting an existing social movement sector , which is the multiple social movement industries in a society, even if they have widely varying constituents and goals. The civil rights movement had also existed well before Rosa Parks refused to give up her bus seat to a white man. Less known is that Parks was a member of the NAACP and trained in leadership (A&E Television Networks, LLC. 2014). But her action that day was spontaneous and unplanned (Schmitz 2014). Her arrest triggered a public outcry that led to the famous Montgomery bus boycott, turning the movement into what we now think of as the "civil rights movement" (Schmitz 2014).

Mobilization had to begin immediately. Boycotting the bus made other means of transportation necessary, which was provided through car pools. Churches and their ministers joined the struggle, and the protest organization In Friendship was formed as well as The Friendly Club and the Club From Nowhere. A social movement industry    , which is the collection of the social movement organizations that are striving toward similar goals, was growing.

Martin Luther King Jr. emerged during these events to become the charismatic leader of the movement, gained respect from elites in the federal government, and aided by even more emerging SMOs such as the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), among others. Several still exist today. Although the movement in that period was an overall success, and laws were changed (even if not attitudes), the "movement" continues. So do struggles to keep the gains that were made, even as the U.S. Supreme Court has recently weakened the Voter Rights Act of 1965, once again making it more difficult for black Americans and other minorities to vote.

Questions & Answers

what are social facts according to Durkheim
Batch Reply
social facts are the facts which provides constrains on individual and are external to individual
Gh
Durkheim said actually society has already created these facts I.e why these are external to individual ....these are not generated by individual himself....
Gh
Social fact is a theory created by sociologist Emile Durkheim to describe how values, culture and norms control the actions and beliefs of individuals and society as a whole.
manisha
Social facts are the reason why people within a society seem to do the same basic things, such as where they live, what they eat, and how they interact. The society they belong to shapes them to do these things, continuing social facts.
manisha
Durkheim used many examples to demonstrate his theory of social facts, including:  Marriage: Social groups tend to have the same ideas towards marriage, such as the appropriate age to get married and what a ceremony should look like. 
manisha
Language: People living in the same area tend to speak the same language. In fact, they can develop and pass on their own dialect and idioms. Years later, those norms can identify someone as being part of a particular region. 
manisha
Religion: Social facts shape how we view religion. Different areas have different religious strongholds, with faith being a regular part of life, and other religions are considered foreign and strange. 
manisha
thanks 😃
Batch
Social Facts and Religion One of the areas Durkheim explored thoroughly was religion. He looked at the social facts of suicide rates in Protestant and Catholic communities. Catholic communities view suicide as one of the worst sins, and as such, have much lower suicide rates than Protestants.
manisha
Social Fact and Control Social fact is a technique of control. Societal norms shape our attitudes, beliefs and actions. They inform what we do every day, from who we befriend to how we work. 
manisha
Social fact is what makes us react strongly to people who deviate from social attitudes. For example, people in other countries who have no established home, and instead wander from place to place and take odd jobs. Western societies tend to be view these people as odd and strange based on our socia
manisha
thanks to you I got to learn the concept
manisha
What is a social fact in one culture can be abhorrently strange in another; by keeping in mind how society influences your beliefs, you can temper your reactions to what is different.
manisha
why he said that social facts should be regarded as things ?
Batch
I don't know.. it just his point of view.. :)
manisha
can someone explain norms...
faisal
check George Ritzer for social fact He has written sociological theory where he has mentioned two types of social facts also
Gh
norms?
faisal
norms are shared rules of conduct that tell people how to act in specific situations.
manisha
an accepted standard, or a way of behaving or doing things that most people agree with
Gh
types of Norma are folkways mores and laws
manisha
an accepted standard, or a way of behaving or doing things that most people agree with
Gh
difference then between norms and folkways
Gh
rituals also
manisha
thanks dear
faisal
norms are considered as rules and expectations set by particular society that serves as guides to the behaviour of its members.
manisha
it is reinforced by sanctions in the forms of rewards and punishments.
manisha
ok what does it mean that he considered social facts as things
Batch
would u like to explain briefly folkways....
faisal
i started sociology nowadys..i got admin in eng..but in course we hv sociology also...so i don,t know knowlege about sociology....hope u r converstion help me alot...
faisal
folkways are norms that describe socially acceptable behaviour but don't have moral significance attached to them.
manisha
folkways are behavioural patterns that is repetitive and organise.
manisha
folkways arise during social interaction and are passed on from one generation to next.
manisha
For example, one who does not brush his teeth regularly, take bath daily, and wash his clothes regularly and properly, is not going to be punished by law. But such an individual is put to gossip and ridicule. One can neglect and violate one or a few of it but no sane person can neglect and violate
manisha
rituals are highly scripted ceremonies of interaction which follows a sequence of actions. e.g. baptism, holidays, yagya.
manisha
how Division of labour cause solidarity in society?..
Gh
According Durkheim, in modern societies the division of labor is the principal source of social cohesion or social solidarity. He distinguished two types of solidarity – mechanical and organic.
manisha
In primitive societies lack of or a slight division of labour leads to ‘mechanical solidarity’ based on mental and moral homogeneity of individuals. When division of labour becomes great it leads to specialisation of labour and the disappearance of mental and moral homogeneity of individuals. This
manisha
This gives rise to ‘organic solidarity’
manisha
Social Consequences of Division of Labour: No modern society can work without the division of labour. It is an inevitable feature of the modern industrial system. The following are the merits of the division of labour.
manisha
While analysing the social functions of division of labour, Durkheim sought to show that in modern societies the division of labour is the principal source of social cohesion or solidarity. He visualised the modern society as the society of organic solidarity.
manisha
Division of labour involves diversification of roles and thereby an opportunity of life style is offered. It ensures growth of individuality and individual potential. It negates the necessity of a repressive law, since it strengthens solidarity and collectivity
manisha
its like when we work on group project of college and we divide work to our members according to efficiency then we work better focus on our self work without any nagging or blaming thus it increases solidarity unity in us. same applies in industrial work
manisha
thankou manisha
Gh
Members of the society develop a strong sense of interdependence. By fostering regular contacts between labour and capital, the danger of economic and social disintegration can be stalled. Division of labour has necessitated extensive training of the workers and thus, get right type of job.
manisha
It promises full career opportunities to the worker. The division of labour, in modern capitalist society, has increased man’s productive efficiency and as a result, society is capable to make more goods and provide more leisure to individuals.
manisha
***yourarticlelibrary.com/sociology/social-consequences-of-division-of-labour-sociology/8549
manisha
is it sociology limited to only society?
faisal
no in modern sence Sociology has many branches ... for e.g sociology of medicine, even recent new subject Sociology of facebook.....
Gh
no there are different branches of sociology ...I.e sociology of medicine,sociology of facebook emerges as new subject..
Gh
Sociology is voice of people .commet?
Gh
Facebook – How Sociology Can Make This Meaningful. ...Facebook's study has an extraordinary sample of 'active users' representing one tenth of the world's population The term active user is defined by Johan Ugander and colleagues in one of the aforementioned academic papers.Dec 1, 2011
Gh
ooh
edu
what is difference between westernization and modernization
Gh
Sociology of Facebook? Hahahaha Facebook as a social media or Facebook akin to Students to focus much attention to their book or what?
Muhammad
what is imperialism?
shahnam Reply
is this question of sociology
Akak
yes.this is a factor of sociology
shahnam
yes a topic of political sociology
Sadiq
Imperialism is a the use of power to take over other states and exploit their resources. It is the rulling over or controlling other countries by use of power.
Sadiq
Imperialism is simply a manifestation of the balance of power and is the process by which nations try to achieve a favorable change in the status quo. The purpose of imperialismis to decrease the strategic and political vulnerability of a nation.
Gh
It is a struggle for building an empire for controĺling the land, politics, economics and cultur of other countries without the content of other nations.
Sadiq
thanks
shahnam
what is the main and first factor of sociology?
shahnam Reply
environment biological cultural ideological economic political factors
koko
the founders of sociology
Said Reply
aguste comte
shahnam
How true is it that the extended family system is a bane on Ghana socio economic development
Dubong Reply
thanks
Said
but no info
Said
I don,t really know
Ambe
how groop are deffine in sociology
Syed Reply
is this group...... or something else
Gh
if group:- then it is defined as In sociology, a number of people who identify and interact with one another. 
Gh
Can anyone suggest some basic books for sociology.. With proper understanding content?
Akriti Reply
basic book of C.N Shankar Rao I.e basic principles of Sociology.....
Gh
N book's name?
Akriti
Some other books?
Akriti
Ram Ahuja book Indian social system
Gh
S.C .Dubey book evloution of Indian society
Gh
Okay thanks 👍
Akriti
okkk
Gh
welcome
Gh
all of u are making sense, but we to bring more contributions to this reading
steve
George Ritzer :- sociological theory.
Gh
what is groop in sociology
Syed
Plz explain perspectives of sociology.....!
Hira
Ok
Hira
there r 3 perspective 1.structural functionalism 2. conflict 3 symbolic interactionalism
manisha
pls don't ask old question ask some new critical questions....
Abshar
all answers are infact available on Google ask the concept which you don't understand rather than putting directly the question from your question paper. may be more helpful to you. I simply answer which i really know the meaning.
manisha
Manish I am the student of Bs cevil engineering my schedule is very busy and I am very interested in socialogy I want to knowledge about socialogy that's why I can ask u a question when I study some thing about sociology so we have creat many question on my mind
Abshar
ok all the best for study
manisha
are u a student of socialogy?
Abshar
yes that's y m here...doing ma in sociology Dec exam
manisha
1st year
manisha
what is social fact? what is material social fact and non material social fact?
Gh
what is legal and illegal power
manisha
people in positions of power determine what is legal and illegal
Gh
nice
manisha
if people is in power and he/she use it in that way which would be better for society is may termed as legal if he/she uses it in wrong way he /she may cause harm to society .... and may be termed as illegal power..............
Gh
thanks (manisha)....
Gh
maisha if u r willing please tell me what is social facts? what are material social facts and non material social facts?
Gh
Social fact is a theory created by sociologist Emile Durkheim to describe how values, culture, and norms control the actions and beliefs of individuals and society as a whole.
Hira
how social facts control the actions and belief of individuals....
Gh
as well as society
Gh
what is difference between sacred and profane
Gh
***yourarticlelibrary.com/sociology/rules-of-sociological-methods-according-to-durkheim/43740
manisha
what is this Manisha
Gh
doctor Anwar write abook name (principle of sociology)
shahnam
written by C.n. Shankar Rao
Gh
sacred means holy whereas profane means practice of filthy work
Akak
The sacred refers to things human beings set apart; including religious beliefs, rites, deities or anything socially defined as requiring special religious treatment. Profane is just the opposite of Sacred, which is not sacred that is called profane.
manisha
According to Durkheim, Religion is a division of the world into two kinds of phenomena. 1. The Sacred 2. The Profane
manisha
kool
Kashmiri
thanks everybody for comment
Gh
yourarticlelibrary.com/sociology/rules-of-sociological-methods-according-to-durkheim/43740 that's link for your answer social fact
manisha
its ok ..n was just only copy paste :)
manisha
Manisha mm u r d only woman in this group but ur strength is very much inspiring me....Thank you so much...lift on and on.....
Akak
manisha
salman
Thanks for good vibes.. all the best to all..
manisha
What are the type of sociology?
Alfred
can anybody suggest me any best sociology book for post graduation ?
Back
Salam
Said
hi
Said
how are you doing today
Said
is there anybody here
Said
Gh Hassan! Are you a Ghanaian? If "YES", I am too!
Freedom
No! I'm not.
Alfred
Hi friend I'm new here. from Liberia. Can any one tell me social symbols and their impact on social interaction.
Alfred
No
Alade
Hy everyone I'm new here, like what you guys are doing here
Norman
hi pals I'm new here,do we do assignments here
Rose
how Division Of Labour according to Emile Durkheim brings solidarity in society?.....
Gh
what is Fordism ?
Gh Reply
contemporary society
Vijay Reply
A contemporary society is defined as a setting characterized by technological. innovation and increasing human interconnection and globalization. It brings about. changes such as increased life expectancy, literacy and gender equality, bringing a natural. equilibrium.
Gh
AGIL by talcott parson
Muhammad Reply
A-adaptation G_goal attainment I- integrate L latecy
Gh
given by talcott parson for family.......... ....
Gh
parsons
aditya
relevance of psychology
Vitus
With a vivid examples explain why social problems are health problems
T-
social problems like unemployment creates a feeling of unworthiness, criticism, which affects psychologically and affect self esteem and trust towards self...
manisha
poverty problems creates no proper medical facilities which in further leads to health deterioration
manisha
forceful dowery practices leads to poverty and tension to self which affects health too.
manisha
caste system creates no equality among people which makes people feel alienation towards society which further leads to mentally sick and depression
manisha
family dispute affects children's environment as parents couldn't abled to focus on children as a result brings poor healthy environment and improper development
manisha
westernization may also led to health problems in individuals in society
Gh
Manisha your are now study Bs or Master
Abshar
I mean Bs on socialogy
Abshar
superstitious practices in the name of religion do affect health.
manisha
master
manisha
is Karl Marx a sociologist ?
Gh
GH Hassan yes he is a sociologist
Avantika
but a book namely sociological theory by George ritzer mentions that he was not an socilogist
Gh
but I think he is
Avantika
he mentioned in his book he was an economist not sociologist as max Weber has already said
Gh
ya he is also giving so many theories in economics
Avantika
like multiplier
Avantika
but George ritzer has also said that he always talk about revloutions which were not good for society ..... as Comte has also said that intellectual disorder can cause social disoder ... Karl Marx says intellectual disorder is good for society... how now we can call him sociologist
Gh
we r reading in sociology that means he was sociologist. in real life this doesn't matter who he was... only important for exams
manisha
other social problems like rape, child labour, sexual molestation, human trafficking also causes health.
manisha
health problems
manisha
can any one help me
Vijay
contemporary society?
Vijay
manisha are reading for exam purposes only or to clear a concept
Gh
clear concept
Vijay
if once we clear concept no one can stop us from writing ..... whether in exams or in other compatative exams(manisha)
Gh
can you plz tell me about?
Vijay
both :)
manisha
yes
Vijay
yah
Salahuddin
what is culture
Salahuddin
according to Edward Tylor culture is complex whole which include knowledge, beliefs,art,law, morals, custom n any other capabilities n habits acquired by man as a member of society..
manisha
Culture is the social behavior andnorms found in human societies.
Gh
Manisha what is the of a music in the culture of a place?
Abshar
yes music comes in culture..it's a art presented in every culture of world...
manisha
music is important in every culture as Gandhi ji said it is a music which can integrate people in a society
Gh
can we define sociology a voice of people if yes then how?
Gh Reply
theories defined "what"
Ambe Reply
theory define "what" whereas the problems of method which gives the question "how" explain
Ambe
something suggested as a reasonable explanation for facts, a condition, or an event
Gh
what is difference between westernization and modernization?
Gh Reply
what is sociology in nursing
Anita Reply
I don't know pls can you tell me
jibrin
hello
jibrin
hi!! what about you want to know?
Emile
i also dnt no
Fremah
yeah I want to know pls
jibrin
do have any idea about it
jibrin
is this sociology question?
manisha
what is defiance?
Annas
what are you asking about
jibrin
Hi
max
What is sociology
max
Sociology is a study under the social sciences that looks on the behavior, history, growth, structure, and groups that encompass society.
T-
Wow you get it
jibrin
Defiance is behaviour or an attitude which shows that you are not willing to obey someone.
T-
thanks a lot ..@T-Tommy
Annas
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Kashmiri
Sociology is defined as a study of human behavior inside the societal context. ... Basically, there exist two kinds of sociological knowledge in the nursingcourse: sociology in nursing and sociologyof nursing.
Gh
wat are d different between qualitative method and guantitative
Ambe
according to you why are Aristotle a proto sociologist
Ambe
pls someone should kindly help and answered this questions plssss
Ambe
Qualitative can not be measured .. N quantitative can be measured.. Its a main difference between them
Akriti
what is kinship
CRISPIN
Robin Fox states that "the study of kinship is the study of what man does with these basic facts of life – mating, gestation, parenthood,socialization, siblingship etc."
Gh
Kinship means all human relationships.. Two types onr blood relations another marriage etc
Akriti
consagiune or affinal kin ship
Gh
Q: How can we think sociologically?
Gh Reply
What is dramaturgy in sociology?
Gh
it is an element of human interaction depends upon time place and audience.... @GH
Parwaz
dramaturgy concept was given by.......
Gh
Erving Goffman in his 1959 book
Parwaz
OK thanks
Gh

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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology 2e. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6
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