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Generally speaking, pain can be considered to be neuropathic or inflammatory in nature. Pain that signals some type of tissue damage is known as inflammatory pain    . In some situations, pain results from damage to neurons of either the peripheral or central nervous system. As a result, pain signals that are sent to the brain get exaggerated. This type of pain is known as neuropathic pain    . Multiple treatment options for pain relief range from relaxation therapy to the use of analgesic medications to deep brain stimulation. The most effective treatment option for a given individual will depend on a number of considerations, including the severity and persistence of the pain and any medical/psychological conditions.

Some individuals are born without the ability to feel pain. This very rare genetic disorder is known as congenital insensitivity to pain (or congenital analgesia ). While those with congenital analgesia can detect differences in temperature and pressure, they cannot experience pain. As a result, they often suffer significant injuries. Young children have serious mouth and tongue injuries because they have bitten themselves repeatedly. Not surprisingly, individuals suffering from this disorder have much shorter life expectancies due to their injuries and secondary infections of injured sites (U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2013).

The vestibular sense, proprioception, and kinesthesia

The vestibular sense    contributes to our ability to maintain balance and body posture. As [link] shows, the major sensory organs (utricle, saccule, and the three semicircular canals) of this system are located next to the cochlea in the inner ear. The vestibular organs are fluid-filled and have hair cells, similar to the ones found in the auditory system, which respond to movement of the head and gravitational forces. When these hair cells are stimulated, they send signals to the brain via the vestibular nerve. Although we may not be consciously aware of our vestibular system’s sensory information under normal circumstances, its importance is apparent when we experience motion sickness and/or dizziness related to infections of the inner ear (Khan&Chang, 2013).

An illustration of the vestibular system shows the locations of the three canals (“posterior canal,” “horizontal canal,” and “superior canal”) and the locations of the “urticle,” “oval window,” “cochlea,” “basilar membrane and hair cells,” “saccule,” and “vestibule.”
The major sensory organs of the vestibular system are located next to the cochlea in the inner ear. These include the utricle, saccule, and the three semicircular canals (posterior, superior, and horizontal).

In addition to maintaining balance, the vestibular system collects information critical for controlling movement and the reflexes that move various parts of our bodies to compensate for changes in body position. Therefore, both proprioception    (perception of body position) and kinesthesia    (perception of the body’s movement through space) interact with information provided by the vestibular system.

These sensory systems also gather information from receptors that respond to stretch and tension in muscles, joints, skin, and tendons (Lackner&DiZio, 2005; Proske, 2006; Proske&Gandevia, 2012). Proprioceptive and kinesthetic information travels to the brain via the spinal column. Several cortical regions in addition to the cerebellum receive information from and send information to the sensory organs of the proprioceptive and kinesthetic systems.

Summary

Taste (gustation) and smell (olfaction) are chemical senses that employ receptors on the tongue and in the nose that bind directly with taste and odor molecules in order to transmit information to the brain for processing. Our ability to perceive touch, temperature, and pain is mediated by a number of receptors and free nerve endings that are distributed throughout the skin and various tissues of the body. The vestibular sense helps us maintain a sense of balance through the response of hair cells in the utricle, saccule, and semi-circular canals that respond to changes in head position and gravity. Our proprioceptive and kinesthetic systems provide information about body position and body movement through receptors that detect stretch and tension in the muscles, joints, tendons, and skin of the body.

Personal application question

As mentioned earlier, a food’s flavor represents an interaction of both gustatory and olfactory information. Think about the last time you were seriously congested due to a cold or the flu. What changes did you notice in the flavors of the foods that you ate during this time?

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Questions & Answers

a real life example of humanistic model
Alexsus Reply
what is a linear relationship
Happy Reply
directly related. like if one factor changes, so will the other
explain the process of visua sensation
David Reply
Sensation is defined as the stimulation of sense organs Visual sensation is a physiological process which means that it is the same for everyone. We absorb energy such as electro magnetic energy (light) or sound waves by sensory organs such as eyes.
Happy
what is selective attention?
Aqeelah
Happy what did you say visual sensation is ?
Tanam
please make your explanation clear for us
Tanam
you mean you experience sensation by what you see..
Ingrid
I thought it was by what your five senses interpreted
Fire
visual has to do with the eyes alone
Ayomide
sensory has to do with all the sense organs ranging from the eyes,nose, skin,tongue and ear
Ayomide
selective attention is focusing on a particular stimulus out of myriads of stimuli
Ayomide
visual sensation in simple terms is standing from far it seems to assume that the trees are emerged but when you get they totally separated
Tanam
seeing the trees been emerged is the visual sensation.That is my understanding, you can also find out
Tanam
a woman watch me all time why
Janak Reply
because it is hard to test alot of things in it empiricaly
Ahmed Reply
good Morning, I want someone to give me a lecture on levels of conscious
Tebukoza Reply
why is psyche represented as a butterfly?
Gabriella Reply
Psyche's mythological imagery in ancient art is represented with butterfly wings, amply depicted in pottery as well. ... The metamorphosis of the butterfly inspired many to use butterflies as a symbol of the soul's exit from the body. Thus, the myth of Psyche concomitantly signifies soul and butterf
Sashini
ok thanks
Gabriella
On what basis do people argue that genes do not set limits on a person's potential?
Shruti Reply
The Nature-Nature Thingy
Wayne
Nature vs nurture
Eric
well, going by Polygenic Hypothesis formulated in a genome-wide association study (GWAS), each (even all) gene(s) affects every complex trait. from physical to even one's mental growth (though it's still debatable).
Like you know, the selfish gene, like genes passed on to generation after generation​; and if a person with a certain gene arrangement pattern meets someone remotely resembling even a part of it, he/she'll automatically behave selflessly towards the other person.
somewhat linking to the idea of soulmates, and Plato's idea of conjoint men and women who were split by God and hence strive to become one yet again. (I know I'm wandering away from psychology here)
But IQ is affected by both genes and environment.
"Other studies at the world-leading Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research suggest that many of our traits are more than 50% inherited, including obedience to authority, vulnerability to stress, and risk-seeking. "
as for effect of the environment, study of epigenetics shows that how many inherited traits only get “switched on” in certain environments.
BUT, "Various options are pencilled in by our genes, and our life experiences determine which get inked." That is, what gets 'unlocked' depends on our experience and environment factor.
like determining if a person will be introvert or extrovert, by just observing his parents is not enough. though it does contribute a major part.
so, I'd like to go against your question (somewhat) and say, genes do set limitations, but what some genes only 'unlock' under certain circumstances and environment, so they don't limit it totally
hope it helped. @ me (CK) if any doubts or queries remain
great
Mateen
Hi, I have completed my Engineering with MBA in HR, and I want to pursue my career in field related to psychology. Is it possible to study psychology and pursue my dream.
Aparnaa Reply
You can but you'll have to start from FYBA again
Rama
Oh! hmm thank you.
Aparnaa
Look into getting a doctorate in industrial/organizational psychology. There are myriad fields within psychology; which one are you pursuing?
David
something like counselling!
Aparnaa
if you want to be a licensed professional counselor, you need to get a master of arts degree in counseling. It takes about two years to complete. you will have a practicum/internship as well within your coursework. Before you apply for a degree, find out your states requirements about licensure.
David
Hmm i will check the details and thank you so much!
Aparnaa
am a a student clinical officer
David Reply
What is the hardest subject/something-you-have-to-learn in a psychology degree?
Emiko Reply
The hardest subject is your mind ..Kokoro
Boy
well, obviously?
Emiko
Depends on what your interest is. Some ppl find Industrial/Organisational Psych difficult or some find Cognitive Psychology difficult and think they are very dry subjects, but I enjoy learning them. But counseling/ Abnormal Psychology was more difficult for me because you gotta learn stuff by heart.
Rama
I'm interested in Personality Psychology. What so I need to learn in that to do well in that area?
Emiko
clinical psychology is outstanding i must say
Arindam
clinical psychology is outstanding i must say
Arindam
What level of Psychology statistics have you guys done so far?
Maria
i hv completed MA in clinical
Arindam
@Maria, I've learnt just the basic Statistics. t test, ANOVA ( F test), Z test and chi square
Rama
@Emiko tell which grade are you in currently so I can suggest what to study accordingly.
Rama
a women always look me all day why
Janak
she is cur
Park
curios about you*
Park
or it's just in your mind @janak, do keep both the possibilities in mind
I wanna welcome everyone to my wedding
Boy Reply
psychological marriage
Boy
let's get it
Maikol
so what's the first part you wish to dive in?
Maikol
I'm scared so I can't sleep...what should I do to fall asleep?
Alyssa Reply
Try ASMR?
hot shower with music or just music
Robert
I can't sleep either when I'm scared. What I did to help me sleep was: I try to distract my mind with comforting thoughts, relaxing before jumping onto the bed, drain my energy (walking around the house, little exercises), avoid screen 1 hour before going to sleep.
Emiko
You can also search in the internet fr more information
Emiko
Read Hanuman Chalisa And also Read About Shri Hanuman ji
Amber
What kind of thoughts do you get that affect your sleeping routine?
Namira
I can't sleep when I think about my future. how can I better my life. what things I can do to help out others and have a better way of life. I think about how to stop struggling in life.
said
Said Hamdani, take a sheet of paper, write down all the things you want to do or achieve in life, from smallest to the biggest desires, write down everything. After doing that, on another page, write down the procedures you have to follow or things you have to do in order to achieve your goals.
Namira
Start now, and trust the process. Believe in yourself, believe in your abilities and work hard :) By doing this, you will be able to sleep properly and you won't get worried about how to make your life a better place.
Namira
Struggles are important in life, they shape you and prepare you for the rest of the life. So, it's okay to struggle :) Look around you, start helping people in solving their little problems, you can help your parents, your friends or anyone.
Namira
response ,lies in frontal lobe
Mani Reply
Hello? o.o?
Alyssa
g
Mani
I never even knew there was a chat here...o.o...
Alyssa
hello
Amal
lies in frontal lobe?
Amal
I'm so confused...o.o...
Alyssa
I just downloaded this app XD
Alyssa
is the social situation and names in frontal lobe?
Amal
me too Alyssa
Amal
is ur major psychology?
Amal
:)
Ann
I'm actually still in high school :3 I want to major in Psychology when I go to college though :3
Alyssa
same here alyssa hehe
Ann
You're in high school too? :3
Alyssa
uhh senior high
Ann
hi everyone.how are you keeping ?😊
Nikkhil
hi everyone.how are you keeping ?😊
Nikkhil
I'm in my 11th year :3 (grade 11)
Alyssa
I'm trying to survive school XD
Alyssa
i wnt more info about it
Laraib
m cnfsed
Laraib
all of us r studying psychology?
Arindam
ohh... grade 12 student here :))
Ann
I want to when I finish high school (if my mom will allow me to) :3
Alyssa
I'm a pharmacist
meet
I'm a poetaster :p
Knowledge is power, it is very good you are studying psychology so young! you can do great things!
JOHN
thanks your motivation
meet
psychology student .. this is the final semester for me in the university
Amal
Amal saeed, very good! my friend and what will you do when you are out?
JOHN
am also a psychology student
moshood
John, thinking about Master
Amal
amal. where r u from?
Arindam
it ll be better if we study psychology a little bit
Arindam
hey
wammy
Heya everyone, nice to meet you all :3
Emiko
hey!
Diya
hey
Boy
hey
Boy
hi
Xxspecter
Hey frnds i am new here. i am here to learn something new.
Preet
welcome @Preet it's nice to learn something new
Emiko
members am new but I need to know you just send hi
David
hello ! I'm currently doing my Masters in Counseling Psych !
Rama
Arinda, I am from Qatar
Amal
hii
War
rama from wich university
Arindam
Hello all!. am jareesh, in Qatar now. very good to see this kind of community. am into technology but very keen to learn more about psychology and new in this field.
Jareesh
hey
Ahmadi
@Arindam. I completed my bachelor's from Mumbai university and now in S.N.D.T
Rama
Asalaam u Alaikum
War
I study psychology at home.I can't go to schools because of lions roaming around.just wanna improve my convincing skills through psychology studies . Am from Africa
Boy
Does anyone know an international site that offers accredited degrees for psychology?
Monique Reply
***bestcollegereviews.org/top/online-psychology-programs/ maybe this'll help
Thank you
Monique
the name's CK, and glad to help :-D
the name's CK, and glad to help :-D

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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