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Generally speaking, pain can be considered to be neuropathic or inflammatory in nature. Pain that signals some type of tissue damage is known as inflammatory pain    . In some situations, pain results from damage to neurons of either the peripheral or central nervous system. As a result, pain signals that are sent to the brain get exaggerated. This type of pain is known as neuropathic pain    . Multiple treatment options for pain relief range from relaxation therapy to the use of analgesic medications to deep brain stimulation. The most effective treatment option for a given individual will depend on a number of considerations, including the severity and persistence of the pain and any medical/psychological conditions.

Some individuals are born without the ability to feel pain. This very rare genetic disorder is known as congenital insensitivity to pain (or congenital analgesia ). While those with congenital analgesia can detect differences in temperature and pressure, they cannot experience pain. As a result, they often suffer significant injuries. Young children have serious mouth and tongue injuries because they have bitten themselves repeatedly. Not surprisingly, individuals suffering from this disorder have much shorter life expectancies due to their injuries and secondary infections of injured sites (U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2013).

The vestibular sense, proprioception, and kinesthesia

The vestibular sense    contributes to our ability to maintain balance and body posture. As [link] shows, the major sensory organs (utricle, saccule, and the three semicircular canals) of this system are located next to the cochlea in the inner ear. The vestibular organs are fluid-filled and have hair cells, similar to the ones found in the auditory system, which respond to movement of the head and gravitational forces. When these hair cells are stimulated, they send signals to the brain via the vestibular nerve. Although we may not be consciously aware of our vestibular system’s sensory information under normal circumstances, its importance is apparent when we experience motion sickness and/or dizziness related to infections of the inner ear (Khan&Chang, 2013).

An illustration of the vestibular system shows the locations of the three canals (“posterior canal,” “horizontal canal,” and “superior canal”) and the locations of the “urticle,” “oval window,” “cochlea,” “basilar membrane and hair cells,” “saccule,” and “vestibule.”
The major sensory organs of the vestibular system are located next to the cochlea in the inner ear. These include the utricle, saccule, and the three semicircular canals (posterior, superior, and horizontal).

In addition to maintaining balance, the vestibular system collects information critical for controlling movement and the reflexes that move various parts of our bodies to compensate for changes in body position. Therefore, both proprioception    (perception of body position) and kinesthesia    (perception of the body’s movement through space) interact with information provided by the vestibular system.

These sensory systems also gather information from receptors that respond to stretch and tension in muscles, joints, skin, and tendons (Lackner&DiZio, 2005; Proske, 2006; Proske&Gandevia, 2012). Proprioceptive and kinesthetic information travels to the brain via the spinal column. Several cortical regions in addition to the cerebellum receive information from and send information to the sensory organs of the proprioceptive and kinesthetic systems.

Summary

Taste (gustation) and smell (olfaction) are chemical senses that employ receptors on the tongue and in the nose that bind directly with taste and odor molecules in order to transmit information to the brain for processing. Our ability to perceive touch, temperature, and pain is mediated by a number of receptors and free nerve endings that are distributed throughout the skin and various tissues of the body. The vestibular sense helps us maintain a sense of balance through the response of hair cells in the utricle, saccule, and semi-circular canals that respond to changes in head position and gravity. Our proprioceptive and kinesthetic systems provide information about body position and body movement through receptors that detect stretch and tension in the muscles, joints, tendons, and skin of the body.

Personal application question

As mentioned earlier, a food’s flavor represents an interaction of both gustatory and olfactory information. Think about the last time you were seriously congested due to a cold or the flu. What changes did you notice in the flavors of the foods that you ate during this time?

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Questions & Answers

ok so hii im 13 I am extremely onto psychology. I think I have depression. I googled the symtoms and took quizes and I have moderately severe depression. can someone help me please
jamie Reply
Hi...
Qwert
hey, is there anyone you feel comfortable enough with to talk to? maybe a parent or teacher ? x
Lisa-Marie
I love on having a self time
Qwert
Hey Jamie, it's good that you came here. as Lisa-Marie said, you should talk to a teacher or parent and they will probably refer you to your gp who will decide which steps should be taken next.
Leon
You will probably be offered some form of talking therapy such as cognitive behavioural therapy where you will be encouraged to challenge irrational thoughts. It might be difficult for you to talk to a teacher or parent about this but you definitely should.
Leon
Depression is treatable and everyone will try to support you
Leon
very well said Leon .. everyone is here for you, you are not alone .. you've taken the first step now :D we are all here to support you x
Lisa-Marie
Heeey Jamie good on you for being able to express yourself you are after all in a support group one think I can suggest that helped me is positive affirmations motivation speeches on YouTube in the morning it really helped me get out of bed and it helped though a low and stressful childhood
Michael
I've had that experience. What helped me get through my depression, was learning more about my situation. I stop questioning other things and got in touch with my own emotions and where they came from. Other's would call it self examination. The first thing I asked myself was how and why.
Kia
Greetings, Jamie. I am astoundingly happy that you have come out voice your depression! I revere you for doing so. However, I encourage you to see a medical professional, such as a therapist, or other doctor. It is excellent that you have taken the first, intentional step in evaluating yourself.
J.
It is to make sure, truly, that you do have severe clinical depression. And not be mislead by a website, or misinformation. I re-emphaise, good job on being open.
J.
Where did it come from? and how did I get there. I wrote these questions down daily for everything and answered them. You must be open with yourself and not afraid to be honest with yourself. This is how I got through. Self Talk but in ✍. I believe you'll do well.
Kia
In your definition, what is Imagination? Picture yourself explaining it to a 6 year old child.
J. Reply
it is a cognitive process used in mental function.
Rushna
Excellent. However, provided a child reads this, will they be able to understand what you wrote on the spot?
J.
Then u may say imaginations are those pictures which u think of when you can think whatever you want to
Anindya
this conversation was very informative
juan
this has actually been helpful, thank you
Leon
haha interesting question! imagination is something abstarkte and there are no limitations within the flare for different happenings. image to children such as animism where the toys the children consider to be alive.
Diferent
when I grow up I'll be prince ..etc
Diferent
Videos nice. Bt needed fr a six yrs old
Anindya
I think to a 6 year old imagination is ur brain creting its own stories and thoughts without stealing other people's
jamie
creating*
jamie
Go Phuck Yourself... Ain't You Hv Any Work...
Qwert
what are the personality disorders
Nigel Reply
go to google!write it.
Diferent
attachments that get a variety of goals done
Jose Reply
some goals have more than one checkpoint
Jose
true
miss
true everything is like root. you need to split your goal to make tree stand straight.
wish
true
ali
yes true
Touch
im on chp emotion and motivition
Jose Reply
hm
ali
that point was deep, motionable.
Jose
what
miss
thoughts can have momentum to them. . . hmm just jotting
Jose
a single goal has many checkpoints, demomstrating reasonable courage through each, with a change in conscious attitude. . . stability goals.
Jose
self encouragement
Jose
motivations(reasons) that help maintain balanced good character
Jose
hi
jamie
who has father of modern psychology?
pravin Reply
I have him and you can get him back for 100 million :)
Himshikha
who was the father of modern psychology?
pravin
Sigmund Freud
vishav
it's true vashav?
pravin
tnx
pravin
The "Father of modern psychiatry". Philippe Pinel's "release from chains" of 1793 and the beginning of the "science of psychiatry"]. 
ali
Freud is the father of modern Psychology that's what my batcholrs and masters in psychology taught me
Pradeep
follow books not Google
Pradeep
not everything is in your books, captian.
juan
What are some good books for a beginner in Criminal Psychology?
Nick
start in forensics
Rick
but you got to start off in psych 1200 it may give you a different direction in which to go. so many branches
Rick
in any case best of luck to you...are you looking for profiling?
Rick
david v canter forensic psychology for dummies!Nick.
Diferent
How dose stress differ from someone with dimincha an without dimincha
Zack Reply
I don't know Zack ,but they say talking to yourself is ok ,but awnsering your self is a bad thing.😂
Zack
what is the pre scientific psychology?
Lusia Reply
psychology that used "introspection" to explore the elemental structure of the human mind. Functionalism. a school ofpsychology that focused on how mental and behavior processes function - how they enable and allow organisms to adapt, survive, and flourish.
ali
was the belief in god and the state of mind, the various religions! The psychological psychology lab was founded in 1879, but as a serious science, brain work began to be successful when anti-depressant characters and antipsychotic drugs were discovered!
Diferent
but angels this is history after being psychological science itself!
Diferent
expert through realistic history
Jose
hi friends......... i have a confusion about the question
shaima Reply
which one friend?
Jose
What is trephination
Monica Reply
skinning of the skull! It was used earlier when science is not advanced! is still rarely used, the reason for filling the brain with oxygen, depression etc
Diferent
how to overcome anxiety
Swapnodeep Reply
how to overcome fear of people
Swapnodeep
exposure and meditation(im not a trained professional lol but it helped me) ask yourself why you are scared
juan
couldn't agree more Juan Roa exposure is the best thing if your scared or nervous to do something you.should do it because it tempary and you'll over come it when you get through the discomfort to a new comfort it's all about stages you grow through in life
Michael
You learn to accept the good and the bad and power through the obstacles to make you stronger.
Kathy
Life is a constant learning curve based on your experiences...
Kathy
and your reactions, good or bad to those experiences.
Kathy
listen to frequency
God
what are the kinds of Psychologists and which one can easy and interesting?
Jaswanth Reply
how to be an active listener?
Pritszel Reply
***en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_listening
Anindya
Pls go through
Anindya
make an eye contact and you can nod that you are listening
Matúš
also body language is important
Matúš
not a credible source
Maria
ok thanks..
Pritszel
hi! i am a person of 21 yeard of age. i want to start a business. but now i have to face a problem which. to be honest banking problem, i am not sure but within a month the problem may start. and if started i may get some mental stress. experts please help me on this to deal.
Private Reply
None can avoid stress bt can learn to cope up with it.
Anindya
Follow a routine life, healthy diet and physical exercise. These things may hlp u
Anindya
pls be specific about the problem so we can know how to help you out
Glory
to be honest, father had taken loan of 18million and now is unable to pay the interest. bank is about to execute legal procedure. i feel like it may hamper on me and my career. but i dont want to quit. i want to run towards my dream but due to these problems i am not staying focused towards it.
Private
You should go and consult with a councellor regarding the issue
Anindya
should i work under pressure of take a rest for certain period of time and be normal again and start my career?
Private
Hello, what is your father's relationship with this business?
Diferent
my father has no any relation with my startup business currently. but the legal procedures from the bank(my name on national news paper along with photo and details) will surely somehow affect me. how can i get rid of it brcause i dont wanna quit, sooner or late i want to be something..
Private
this is not something tough for you! The craftsman's prejudices always exist, there will be different attitudes about this matter! Those who disagree, will appreciate the moment with you! Those who disagree, make public judgments, you have to have more confidence to cope too much!
Diferent
Many people give their family attitudes, if a family is not well-educated and prejudices, they get caught up with other people, if they want us to communicate and by email, I can help!
Diferent
Mr. private why you feel if started I may get mental stress ..... this is the first reason definitely I will get mental stress.... already you sended to your brain about this problem .....so at that time your brain automatically create stressful environment you don't know what happening around you
Chennakesavarao
hi different! thats not possible! but thank you. but i may need help. i would be greatfull if you can help me! how can i contact you? on email?
Private
hi gattu! please read all my problems.
Private
you will become zero knowledge person ..... listen i thought you have a great thinking power so fill your brain with positive thoughts you have a great life ahead this your first failure... don't blame your mind as you a failure person...
Chennakesavarao
and you said bank legal notice , my name with photo in national news channel ......this is the mostly worst and time westing thinking... people didn't remember you.... everyone has a lot of problems so didn't think about you and people only remember successful persons
Chennakesavarao
hi gattu! i prefer failing than quiting, because it teaches something that no one is capable to teach. i am about lose everything, and you agree or not, it definitely makes you feel stressed. no matter who the person is. i motivate people to calm. but is a problem only 1 in 1000s face.
Private
yeah you will contact through mail
Chennakesavarao
can I know about your business
Chennakesavarao
i have a business to start. not started yet. the things i have mentioned about losing is my dads business, property, house and all.
Private
Anyone to tlk abt defence mechanisms?
Anindya Reply
M not know about defence mechanics.. But i can do telepathy and knowledge of psychic power..
Harmanpreet
What type of power is tht?
Anindya
Its mind power..
Harmanpreet
With. Mind power u can do most of things.. Like u can communicate with anyone in the world only with your mind power.. U can send any mesg to a specific person.. Its is a feeling message..
Harmanpreet
we have ennumber of defence mechanism in psychology specially fredu and neo fraudian what u wanna discuss
Pradeep
A defense mechanism is a coping technique that reduces anxiety arising from unacceptable or potential harmful impulses.
Maria
Some of them include: 1)Rationalization 2) Repression 3) Denial 4) Regression 5) Projection 6) Sublimation 7) Displacement
Maria
the list which Maria mam have noted is few common DM
Pradeep
Sigmund Freud's daughter, Anna Freud enumerated a total of ten defense mechanisms to help manage the internal components between the Id, ego and superego and reduce anxiety.
Maria
if u understand well about whole defence mechanism then dealing with clients will be more convenient
Pradeep
how to overcome fear of people.
Swapnodeep

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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