# Simple machine elements

 Page 1 / 3
The simple mechanical elements that comprise complex machines, like robots, are described.

Complex machines are made up of moving parts such as levers, gears, cams, cranks, springs, belts, andwheels. Machines deliver a certain type of movement to a desired location from an input force applied somewhere else. Somemachines simply convert one type of motion to another type, such as rotary to linear. While there is a seemingly endless varietyof machines, they are all based upon simple machine elements. The elements discussed here include inclined planes, levers, wheels and axles,pulleys, and screws.

It is important to remember that all machines are limited in their efficiency by friction. No machine is 100 percent efficientin its efforts, so the mechanical advantage gained will require additional energy to accomplish the task. For more information on friction, see this module

## The inclined plane

An inclined plane decreases the force required to raise an object a given height byincreasing the distance over which that force must be applied, see . Imagine lifting something twice your weight to a 4 foot high shelf. Now imagine rolling the same mass up a gentlysloping surface. The latter would be much easier. Inclined planes are commonly put to use in cutting devices and oftentwo inclined planes are put back to back to form a wedge. In a wedge, forward movement is converted into a parting movementacting perpendicular to the face of the blade. A zipper is simply a combination of two lower wedges for closing and an upper wedge for opening, as shown in .

## The screw

The screw is basically an inclined plane (see ) wrapped around a cylinder. In an inclined plane, a linear force in thehorizontal plane is converted to a vertical "lifting" force. With a screw, a rotary force in the horizontal plane isconverted to a vertical "lifting" force.

When a wood screw is turned, the threads of the screw push up on the wood. A reaction force from the woodpushes back down on the screw threads and in this way the screw moves down even though the force of turning the screw isin the horizontal plane. Screws are known for high friction, which is why they are used to hold things together. A worm gear is sometimes used in machines, but they also have high friction that can waste considerable power.

## Levers

A lever has three points of interest: the fulcrum, the load, and the effort applied to the lever. The fulcrum is the point around which the lever pivots rotationally. The load is what we wish to manipulate with the lever, and the load is described by its position relative to the fulcrum, and the force (magnitude and direction) it exerts at that point.The effort is also a force that has a magnitude and a direction, and a position with respect to the fulcrum. A leveris used to change the direction of movement, and to trade the magnitude of the effort for the distance over whichthe effort is applied.

#### Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

### Read also:

#### Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, An introduction to mechanical engineering for high school students. OpenStax CNX. Feb 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10640/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'An introduction to mechanical engineering for high school students' conversation and receive update notifications?

 By By Eric Crawford By By Jordon Humphreys