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As the term revolution implies, this massive industrial growth was not sustained and this led to massive economic and political upheaval in Wales. Despite industrialisation around the world, various factors combined to reduce the scale of the Welsh coal industry long before its eventual collapse in the 1980s. This came about due to a variety of factors including modernisation of industries in competing nations such as Poland, service of overseas markets by closer competitors (such as Canada importing coal from the United States), and even the war reparations enforced on Germany, which lacking cash were settled in coal (Morgan 1981).

Industrial decline and the ‘fdi’ era

The massive contraction of the steel industry and the almost complete disappearance of the coal industry during the 1970s and 1980s punctuated a trend of economic decline that had set in during the post-war period (Morgan 2001). To stem this decline, major efforts were made to develop other sectors, including attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Since the 1970s this restructuring has absorbed 200,000 jobs from these declining industries into a more modern base of services and manufacturing (WAG 2001). This was also accompanied by a gender restructuring of the workforce that included the proportion of women rising from 38% in 1975 to 50% in 1994 (Cameron et al. 2002).

The GDP of Wales has broadly tracked that of the UK as a whole, though trailing somewhat behind, since records began at the beginning of 1970. This lagging performance, is an effect of the structure of the Welsh economy relying heavily on low value-add employment, compounded by higher rates of economic inactivity in Wales (and particularly the West Wales and Valleys region), along with lower productivity per employee as shown in [link] (WEFO 2004).

GDP per employee (‘000s) by sector, Wales and UK, 1996 (WEFO 2004)
Industrial Sector Wales UK
Agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing 12.8 22.6
Mining, quarrying, including oil and gas Extraction 55.1 60.0
Manufacturing 33.9 32.8
Electricity, gas and water supply 98.2 105.7
Construction 18.9 20.9
Wholesale and Retail Trade 22.4 25.0
Transport and communication 30.6 35.1
Public administration and defence 20.4 26.1
Education, health and social work 17.6 18.2
Other services 5.3 4.7
Total 22.8 25.1

The regional development agency approach

This massive economic pressure and the rise of nationalism led to the UK government establishing development agencies in Wales and Scotland in 1976 (Cooke and Clifton 2005). In Wales this took the form of the Welsh Development Agency (WDA). Its core strategy to provide job creation was to pursue Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) from around the globe. Though much of the literature mentioned in the following section focuses upon FDI in the UK and Wales, it should be noted that this phenomenon of economic development through FDI occurred throughout the European Union (EU) and Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (Barrell and Pain 1997), including the United States (Friedman et al. 1992). However, FDI interventions occurred at (proportionally) higher rates in the EU than the OECD, which were higher in the UK than the EU, and higher in Wales than the UK as a whole.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A study of how a region can lever participation in a global network to accelerate the development of a sustainable technology cluster. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11417/1.2
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