<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
Time Events
0 Seconds
  • Universe starts as a small, hot ball
10 -35 seconds
  • Space expands at a thousand billion billion billion times a second
10 -32 seconds
  • Space is filled by energy and matter such as quarks
10 -8 seconds
  • Matter and antimatter are formed
3 minutes
  • Quarks fuse and form hydrogen and helium
1 million years
  • Gas clouds form long strings
300 million years
  • Strings of clouds are formed, which form stars and galaxies


1. What did the universe consist of at the beginning?

2. What is the Big Bang?

3. How did the first elements originate?

4. What is a quark?

5. How did the following elements originate?

a) Be

b) Fe

6. Name the four most important forces in the universe.

7. What is antimatter and what would happen if it came near matter?

Assessment of understanding of the theory on the origin of the universe:

Do you understand the theory?

[LO 2.3]

Research Assignment 1: TELESCOPES

Write a project of four pages on the use of telescopes and the basic construction of telescopes. Hand your project in on a date set by your educator.

  • Find out more, specifically about the:
  • Hubble telescope;
  • Mcmath solar telescope in Arizona USA;
  • giant radio telescope - the Arecibo - In Puerto Rico;
  • the SAAO in Sutherland, South Africa;
  • the SALT (Southern African Large Telescope) in Sutherland, completed in 2004;
  • the radio telescope at Hartbeeshoek, Gauteng.
  • Conclude your report with a review of the value of the telescope to science.[ LO 1.1; LO 1.2; LO 1.3; LO 3.1]

The Galaxies

  • Our sun is only one of an enormous collection of about two billion stars that lie in space in the shape of a fried egg with a diameter of 100 000 light-years. If you look up at the sky at night and see a band of small stars, you are looking at the Milky Way. This is actually only a view of the edge of our galaxy! The Greek word “galaxy” means “milk”.
  • The earth is approximately 300 000 light-years from the centre of our galaxy.
  • A light-year is one of the most important UNITS in ASTRONOMY that you must know. Scientists use such units because m and km are absurdly small compared to the large distances in space.


  • A light-year = the distance that light travels in one earth-year if it moves at a speed of 300 000 km/s -1

1. Calculate: a light-year

  • 365,25 days x 24 hours x 3 600 seconds x 300 000 km/s -1 = ......................................
  • Therefore: .................................................. kilometres
  • Million, billion or trillion???
1 000 000 10 6 MILLION MEGA
1 000 000 000 10 9 BILLION GIGA
1 000 000 000 000 000 10 15 TRILLION PETA

2. How many stars are there in our sky?

3. Express 10 billion billion as a number (it will have the prefix exa ).

4. Another important unit is the ASTRONOMICAL UNIT (AU) that represents the distance from the sun to the earth, namely, 150 million kilometres.

If the diameter of the sun is written in the notation 1,5 x 10 6 , how would you write the notation of the AU?

5. What is the diameter of our galaxy?

Assessment of calculations:

Were your calculations correct?

[LO 2.4]

Did you know?

The largest formation in the universe is called “the great wall” – a blanket of galaxies that is 500 million light-years long and 16 million light-years thick.

  • Our galaxy is one of billions of such giant star groups or galaxies!!!! This is only what we have been able to establish with our largest and most sensitive telescopes.
  • The galaxy nearest to us is the ANDROMEDA galaxy. Galaxies comprises groups of stars.
  • In between there are giant clouds of gas and particles called nebulae . They are the birthplaces of stars.
  • The theory is that a hot cloud of gasses - the solar nebula - revolved around a newly formed sun four and a half billion years ago and started cooling down. During the cooling-down process billions of drops were formed and started sticking to one another. In this way planets were formed.
  • However, it took another half a billion years to cool down sufficiently and form a crust.


  1. A light-year is.
  2. The Milky Way is.
  3. The Andromeda galaxy is

4. A nebula is

5. The reason why units such as light-years and AU are used is

Assessment of definitions:

Were your definitions correct?

[LO 2.4]


LO 1: Scientific investigations:

The learner will be able to act confidently on curiosity about natural phenomena, and to investigate relationships and solve problems in scientific, technological and environmental contexts.

This is evident when the learner:

  • plans investigations;
  • conducts investigations and collects data;
  • evaluates data and communicates findings.

LO 2: Constructing Science Knowledge:

The learner will know and be able to interpret and apply scientific, technological and environmental knowledge.

This is evident when the learner:

  • interprets information;

2.4 applies knowledge.

LO 3: Science, Society and the Environment

The learner will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationships between science and technology, society and the environment.

This is evident when the learner:

3.1 understands science as a human endeavour;


The origin of the universe


1. no matter – one little ball smaller than an atom; then a mixture of particles and forces

2. super force by which the smaller ball exploded in matter

3. a number of quarks were compressed to form hydrogen

4. a subatomic particle

5. a) merger of He atoms

b) C atoms under extreme temperatures

6. Force of gravity, electromagnets, powerful nuclear forces and weak nuclear forces

7. opposites of matter cancel out matter


1. 10 million kilometres

2. approximately 2 billion

3. 10 18

4. 150 x10 6

5. 100 000 x 300 000


1. the distance that light travelling at 300 000 km.s -1 covers during one earth year

2. an accumulation of billions of stars that include our sun

3. next nearest galaxy

4. gigantic clouds of gas among the galaxies

5. to make it possible to form a concept of a figure

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
is it a question of log
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
But this is not salma it's Faiza live in lousvile Ky I garbage this so I am going collage with JCTC that the of the collage thank you my friends
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11069/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Natural sciences grade 9' conversation and receive update notifications?