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Natural sciences

Grade 4

Planet earth and the universe

Module 42

The moon and its function in the world


Talking about the moon and its function in our world

[lo 1.2,1.3, 3.1]

  • On most evenings the moon, our nearest neighbour in space, lights up our atmosphere. The moon orbits the Earth in approximately 27 days. Some grandfathers and grandmothers know wonderful stories about the moon. Speak to your grandparents and come and share their stories with the learners in your class.
  • Look at the moon for the next few evenings and see how its shape seems to change. Although the moon seems to shine, it is really the rays of the Sun that are reflected off the moon. The moon also moves around the Sun and the rays of the sun light up one side of the moon. The particular shape of the moon that we see is determined by the position of the moon in relation to the sun and the earth. The changes in the shape of the moon are known as the ‘phases’ of the moon.
  • The moon is about a quarter of the size of the earth. We know what the moon looks like because photos have been taken from satellites and astronauts have also taken photos on the moon. The moon is approximately 3 476 km in diameter and about 380 000 km from the earth. It is covered in craters, dust and mountains.

Let’s go to the moon! Design a vehicle that we can use for travelling on the moon. .

Draw your design in this space.

The phases of the moon

The new moon occurs when the moon is between the earth and the sun. We cannot see the moon then because the sunlit side is turned away from the earth. When is the next new moon?


Draw what you see on that evening.

The first quarter is what we have when we can see half of the sunlit side of the moon. This occurs about a week after the new moon. When is the next first quarter?


Draw what you see on that evening.

Full moon means that we can see the whole of the side of the moon that is lit by the sun. This takes place about a week after first quarter. When is the next full moon?


Draw what you see on that evening.

About a week later we again see only half of the sunlit side of the moon. This we call the last quarter . When will the next last quarter occur?


Draw what you see that evening.

Then the phases start all over again.

Do a brief research task about Neil Armstrong, the American astronaut who was the first person to walk on the moon in July 1969. Your task must have the following pages:

1. Cover

2. Contents page

3. Brief content

4. Bibliography

Cultural traditions and special events

Some cultural traditions and special events take place at times determined by the shape or position of the moon.

The Khoisan believed that they could call upon the sun, moon or stars for help at times of sickness or need. They often danced at the time of the full moon and mimicked animals or hunting scenes.

The Khoikhoi worshipped the moon. They believed that the gods provided the rain and they regularly worshipped at the time of the new or full moon. They danced and held festivals during full moon because the full moon was regarded as the symbol of birth and death.

The most important event on the Islamic calendar is the Fast of Ramadan that starts at the first sign of the new moon in October. During the fast Moslems may only eat or drink water after sunset. The Fast of Ramadan lasts for a month, until the next new moon is sighted.

Find out more about cultural traditions and conduct a class discussion. Draw the most interesting thing that you have found out today in the space below.


LEARNING OUTCOME 1: SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONSThe learner will be able to act confidently on curiosity about natural phenomena, and to investigate relationships and solve problems in scientific, technological and environmental contexts.

Assessment Standard

We know this when the learner

  • leads investigations and collects data.
  • evaluates data and provides feedback on observations.

LEARNING OUTCOME 3 : SCIENCE, SOCIETY AND THE ENVIRONMENT The learner will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationships between science and technology, society and the environment.

Assessment Standard

We know this when the learner

  • understands science and technology in the context of history and personal knowledge.


The moon and its role in our world

  • The phases of the moon: See the newspapers and let the learners look at the moon themselves, so they can draw it.
  • Research assignment on Neil Armstrong: Let the learners bring their own research material to school. If they do not have sources, make photocopies and let them sort the information. Teach them how to do research, and that they may not plagiarise.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
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what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 4. OpenStax CNX. Sep 18, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11096/1.1
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