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(By now, you may be suspecting that I have a particular affinity for a data length of 400 samples. If so, you are correct. This is not a technicalaffinity. Rather, it is a visual one. These figures are formatted such that the plotted data occupies an area of the screen containing approximately 400pixels. By matching the plotted points to the positions of the pixels, it is possible to avoid, or at least minimize, the distortion that can occur whenattempting to map from sample points to pixel locations when there is a mismatch between the two.

To see the result of such mapping problems, repeat the experiment shown in Figure 2 and use your mouse to stretch the Frame horizontally by a very small amount. Depending on how much you stretch the Frame, you should seevertical lines disappear, vertical lines that are too close together, or a combination of the two. This is another manifestation of the impact ofsampling that I don't have the time to get into at this point.)

The length of the pulse

As you can see in Figure 4 , the length of the pulse for this experiment was 11 samples, all but one of which had a value of zero.

(In this case, I could have made the pulse length 1 but for simplicity, I will keep it at 11 for several different experiments.)

Defining the origin of time

As you may have discovered by playing video games, we can do things with a computer that we can't do in the real world. For example, the Fourier transformprogram allows me to specify which sample I regard as representing zero time. Samples to the left of that sample represent negative time (history) and samples to the right of that one represent positive time (the future) .

In this case, I specified that the first sample (sample number 0) represents zero time. As you will see later, this has a significant impact on thedistribution of energy between the real and imaginary parts of the transform results, and as such, has a significant impact on the phase angle.

Computational frequency range

Because I am using a DFT algorithm (instead of an FFT algorithm) I can compute the Fourier transform across a range of frequencies of my choosing. Asshown in Figure 4 , I chose to compute the transform across the range of frequencies from zero to one-half the sampling frequency, known as the Nyquistfolding frequency. Thus, the spectral analysis was performed at 400 individual frequencies between these two limits.

The values that make up the pulse

The computational frequency range is followed in Figure 4 by the values of the samples that make up the pulse. Note that the first sample has a value of 180 while the other ten samplesall have a value of 0.

Results of spectral analysis on an impulse

I used the program named Graph03 to plot the output from this program, and the results are shown in Figure 5 .

(Note that rather than plotting each sample value as a vertical bar, Graph03 plots each sample as a dot and connects the dots with straight line segments.)

Figure 5. Spectral analysis of an impulse at zero time.
missing image

Questions & Answers

Leo Robinson's definition
Adejimi Reply
how is equilibrium defined in financial markets?
Babakura Reply
the concept of it
Country A has export sales 20 billion, government purchases 1000billion, business investment is 50 billion, imports are 40billion, and consumption spending is 2000billin. What is the dollar value of GDP ?
Habtamu Reply
what is determination of national income?
Waqar Reply
economic growth
stock of capital
we're RBI keep money with them
Y =C+l
evaluate the success affirmative action as one of south Africa's redress method
Tebatso Reply
what is market equilibrium
explorer Reply
it is a situation in which the supply of an item is exactly equal to it dd .
inder wat condition shld a firm stop production in both short n lungrun ?
what is 2nd degree price discrimination?
what is quantity
what is quantity2
Deji Reply
An indefinite amount of something.
what is demand
Kaman Reply
in ordinary sense demand means desire
demand in economics means both willingness as well as the ability to purchase a commodity by paying a price an also its actuall purchase
what is absolute advantage
demand refers to the various quantity of goods and services that consumers are willing and able to purchase at a particular period of time all other things been equal
The amount of a good or service that consumers are willing to buy at a particular price.
what is cost pull inflation?
what is utility
what is cost pull inflation?
demand is economic principle referring to a consumer's desire and willingness to pay a price for a specific or service..
utility is the among of certisfaction driving from using a comundity
pull cost of inflation hight population unemployment to some of The country members poor government system
what is a buffer scheme
state the second law of demand and supply
Ahmadou Reply
state the law of diminishing marginal utility
dt know WATS the answer
mention and explain two Bank I financial institutions and two non baking financial institutions
Onah Reply
wat is demand pull inflation
Tony Reply
Demand-pull inflation is asserted to arise when aggregate demandin an economy outpaces aggregate supply. It involvesinflation rising as real gross domestic product rises and unemployment falls, as the economy moves along the Phillips curve.
Perfectly elastic demand
Abubakar Reply
this is a form of demand where goods are demanded at a constant price
what inelastic demanding
demand of any good demanded more after a certain period. if a commodity prices may high and scarcity of that resources.
cannot demand more
what is cross-elasticity of demand
Miles Reply
cross elasticity of demand is an economic concept that measures the responsiveness in the quantity demand of one good when a change in price takes place in other good
this is responsiveness quantity demanded keeping other factors constant
what economic growth
Rukundo Reply
conditions of perfect market
NdzAlama Reply
CONDITIONS OF PERFECT MARKET: 1. Perfect competition(PC): no increasing returns, many buyers and sellers, all are price takers, not prices makers. 2. Perfect Information (PI): buyers and sellers know all they need to know about what they are buying and selling to make the right decisions.
3. Complete Markets(CM): no externalities or public goods, no transactions costs, "thick" markets.
nice contributor
A numerous downsized market that does not meet standards.
A Perfect Market is a numerous downsized market that does not meet standards.
what is a market
is place where buyers and sellers met together for the purpose of buying and selling of good and services
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Digital signal processing - dsp. OpenStax CNX. Jan 06, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11642/1.38
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