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The kin selection hypothesis

This chapter will conclude with a brief analysis of the support and opposition for kin selection as a mechanism of lek creation and persistence. Although kin selection is not a distinct hypothesis in itself, it can play a role in any of the mechanisms proposed to explain lek behavior. Kin selection is a common evolutionary explanation for the basis of many animal behaviors. At heart, the theory proposes relatedness as an explanation for behaviors that would otherwise prove disadvantageous for an organism. An organism can pass on its genes directly, through traditional reproduction, or indirectly, by increasing the reproductive fitness of its relatives who share its genes (Hamilton 1964). Thus, it is oftentimes more advantageous for an organism to forgo reproduction in order to assist in the reproductive efforts of his kin. Researchers see potential for the explanation of the group mating structure of leks in terms of kin selection and increased relatedness between members. One of the biggest conundrums of the lek system comes from trying to understand the role of lesser males on the lek. Numerous studies have shown a positive correlation between lek size and frequency of female visits to the lek (see The Preference Hypothesis), which indicates that these lesser, unsuccessful, males are actually increasing the fitness of their more successful counterparts (Petrie 1999). When considering full benefit to the organism, including indirect benefits, this behavior can be understood if the successful males are closely related to the unsuccessful males. Because lower ranking are very unlikely to successfully copulate, theoretical evidence predicts that they join leks where the dominant male is closely related so that they receive indirect benefits (Loiselle 2006).

Hamilton’s rule

Hamilton’s Rule is a simple and effective method for analyzing indirect benefits and inclusive fitness. The rule states that a behavior with benefit b and cost c to an organism, with relatedness r between organism and partners in the act, is evolutionarily favored if

rb – c>0

(Hamilton 1964)

Support

Peacocks

Peacocks establish their permanent display areas in the lek during their fourth year and return to this site every year, where they remain for the duration of the mating season (Petrie 1999). Peacocks are traditional lekking organisms in that the males play no role in reproduction once copulation is complete. On lek, the males are oftentimes as close as 2.5m from one another. Peacock leks demonstrate many characteristics of any classic lekking species. The peacocks congregate in large display arenas and call together, as a group, to attract the peahens. A peahen’s arrival at the lek signals the males to stop calling and instead display their tail coverts in competitive display behavior. Like most leks, the success of the displaying males is very skewed and the majority of the peacocks receive no copulations in return for their elaborate calling and displaying.

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
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Tamia
hii
Uday
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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