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The DSM-5 also provides information about comorbidity    ; the co-occurrence of two disorders. For example, the DSM-5 mentions that 41% of people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) also meet the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder ( [link] ). Drug use is highly comorbid with other mental illnesses; 6 out of 10 people who have a substance use disorder also suffer from another form of mental illness (National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA], 2007).

A Venn-diagram shows two overlapping circles. One circle is titled “Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder” and the other is titled “Major Depressive Disorder.” The area in which these two circles overlap includes forty-one percent of each circle. This area is titled “Comorbidity 41%.”
Obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depressive disorder frequently occur in the same person.

The DSM has changed considerably in the half-century since it was originally published. The first two editions of the DSM, for example, listed homosexuality as a disorder; however, in 1973, the APA voted to remove it from the manual (Silverstein, 2009). Additionally, beginning with the DSM-III in 1980, mental disorders have been described in much greater detail, and the number of diagnosable conditions has grown steadily, as has the size of the manual itself. DSM-I included 106 diagnoses and was 130 total pages, whereas DSM-III included more than 2 times as many diagnoses (265) and was nearly seven times its size (886 total pages) (Mayes&Horowitz, 2005). Although DSM-5 is longer than DSM-IV, the volume includes only 237 disorders, a decrease from the 297 disorders that were listed in DSM-IV. The latest edition, DSM-5, includes revisions in the organization and naming of categories and in the diagnostic criteria for various disorders (Regier, Kuhl,&Kupfer, 2012), while emphasizing careful consideration of the importance of gender and cultural difference in the expression of various symptoms (Fisher, 2010).

Some believe that establishing new diagnoses might overpathologize the human condition by turning common human problems into mental illnesses (The Associated Press, 2013). Indeed, the finding that nearly half of all Americans will meet the criteria for a DSM disorder at some point in their life (Kessler et al., 2005) likely fuels much of this skepticism. The DSM-5 is also criticized on the grounds that its diagnostic criteria have been loosened, thereby threatening to “turn our current diagnostic inflation into diagnostic hyperinflation” (Frances, 2012, para. 22). For example, DSM-IV specified that the symptoms of major depressive disorder must not be attributable to normal bereavement (loss of a loved one). The DSM-5, however, has removed this bereavement exclusion, essentially meaning that grief and sadness after a loved one’s death can constitute major depressive disorder.

The international classification of diseases

A second classification system, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)    , is also widely recognized. Published by the World Health Organization (WHO), the ICD was developed in Europe shortly after World War II and, like the DSM, has been revised several times. The categories of psychological disorders in both the DSM and ICD are similar, as are the criteria for specific disorders; however, some differences exist. Although the ICD is used for clinical purposes, this tool is also used to examine the general health of populations and to monitor the prevalence of diseases and other health problems internationally (WHO, 2013). The ICD is in its 10th edition (ICD-10); however, efforts are now underway to develop a new edition (ICD-11) that, in conjunction with the changes in DSM-5, will help harmonize the two classification systems as much as possible (APA, 2013).

A study that compared the use of the two classification systems found that worldwide the ICD is more frequently used for clinical diagnosis, whereas the DSM is more valued for research (Mezzich, 2002). Most research findings concerning the etiology and treatment of psychological disorders are based on criteria set forth in the DSM (Oltmanns&Castonguay, 2013). The DSM also includes more explicit disorder criteria, along with an extensive and helpful explanatory text (Regier et al., 2012). The DSM is the classification system of choice among U.S. mental health professionals, and this chapter is based on the DSM paradigm.

The compassionate view of psychological disorders

As these disorders are outlined, please bear two things in mind. First, remember that psychological disorders represent extremes of inner experience and behavior. If, while reading about these disorders, you feel that these descriptions begin to personally characterize you, do not worry—this moment of enlightenment probably means nothing more than you are normal. Each of us experiences episodes of sadness, anxiety, and preoccupation with certain thoughts—times when we do not quite feel ourselves. These episodes should not be considered problematic unless the accompanying thoughts and behaviors become extreme and have a disruptive effect on one’s life. Second, understand that people with psychological disorders are far more than just embodiments of their disorders. We do not use terms such as schizophrenics, depressives, or phobics because they are labels that objectify people who suffer from these conditions, thus promoting biased and disparaging assumptions about them. It is important to remember that a psychological disorder is not what a person is ; it is something that a person has —through no fault of his or her own. As is the case with cancer or diabetes, those with psychological disorders suffer debilitating, often painful conditions that are not of their own choosing. These individuals deserve to be viewed and treated with compassion, understanding, and dignity.

Summary

The diagnosis and classification of psychological disorders is essential in studying and treating psychopathology. The classification system used by most U.S. professionals is the DSM-5. The first edition of the DSM was published in 1952, and has undergone numerous revisions. The 5th and most recent edition, the DSM-5, was published in 2013. The diagnostic manual includes a total of 237 specific diagnosable disorders, each described in detail, including its symptoms, prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidity. Over time, the number of diagnosable conditions listed in the DSM has grown steadily, prompting criticism from some. Nevertheless, the diagnostic criteria in the DSM are more explicit than that of any other system, which makes the DSM system highly desirable for both clinical diagnosis and research.

Questions & Answers

please what arw the two main ways of controlling behaviour?
Gifty Reply
patience and meditation
ChandraKumar
any one ,what is bio psychological model
EXTRA
Bio psychological model means bio means body and psychological means mind so bio psychological model is studies mind and body relationships
Nilamani
what us psychology
Ndeh Reply
psychology is the study of mind. And also the study of human behavior.
Simisola
yeah
Oruta
thank you
Ndeh
Ok
Oruta
You're welcome.
Simisola
psychology is the systematic study of human and animal mind and its mental processes.
Christopher
psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behaviour...And it also includes the study of animals as well as humans.
kelson
Psychology is the scientific and systematic study of mental activities, behavior and cognitive process of organism to relationships between it's environment...
Nilamani
yes
Ahsan
What could be some short term and long terms goals one can have,in order to become an education psychologist?
Hibba Reply
hmmm
Maaruf
Short term: - contact a school psychologist and shadow them for a few days - study and keep up with college coursework - join psychology club/ groups Long term: - transfer to a 4 year university - choose wisely your graduate school - talk to graduates from those schools
Isela
thank you Isela Huerta :)
Hibba
how to recognize the person with psychological disorders?
Nawaz
Please keep in mind that it's not allowed to promote any social groups (whatsapp, facebook, etc...), exchange phone numbers, email addresses or ask for personal information on QuizOver's platform.
QuizOver Reply
I want to start psychology courses, which one would you suggest i do first, and why? Im about to move to a different place.
Amanda Reply
open university
rauhahenki
it goes in chronological order, so to speak
rauhahenki
thank you
Amanda
how is Coursera is this matter, what's the best MOOC source?
Suvigya
Could you recommend any online course that would be useful for the purpose. Open university such as?
Swati
post Graduation.... Diploma In Counseling
srikanth
Psychopharmacology
srikanth
Lot Of Courses.... in Which Side You Wanna Go In Particular?
srikanth
oh. well i wish to study before i go into college. counseling sounds good, people like to come to me for advise, and i am very detail oriented and love creative art stuff.
Amanda
@Swati have you tried Coursera
Suvigya
Child Counseling Abnormal Behaviors Addiction's - Rehabilitation Marriage Counseling and A lot More...
srikanth
Which University should I enroll for a Counseling Psychology.
Emmanuel
Yes, I've checked that. Are they good enough to start with? @suvigya
Swati
Yes, online university? Suggestions on that?
Swati
@srikanth i am in usa going to a different state/province. so online makes more sense. is it possible to be really good in more than one ☺
Amanda
yes i agree any suggestions for online university. or just where we can take courses/classes, partial university
Amanda
yah There is A lot of Certification Courses In ONLINE... And Distance Education..
srikanth
thank you for the responses
Amanda
can any 1 tell me how to how to joint indian army as Psychologist
Gaurav
can someone tell me which are some popular certification courses?
pavithra
For Psychologist
Gaurav
family Counselling. @Pavithra Nair..
srikanth
thanks
pavithra
hy
Jennifer
Any one knows where to find Free courses with certification in psychology?
Gian
It Depends On Place Where You Live In
srikanth
in Telangana Osmania University They Offered Different PG Diploma Courses They Collect Minimum Fee It's Too Low... 5k to 6k In Indian Currency
srikanth
Free online courses, without country bounds, do you know some?
Gian
what is motivation?
Shair Reply
The good feeling of wanting to go forward; to a dream, wish or making yourself a better present or future.
Amanda
it could be intrinsic( as mentioned above) as well as extrinsic( salary etc. ) sometimes extrinsic motivation is detrimental to intrinsic..such that it takes away the enjoyment or zeal of doing that thing
Avish
it is the reason for a particular behavior or action.
Champro
hello Everyone..... I Need Some Information.... I've Completed Msc. Psychology In Hyderabad... How Can I Be A Approved Psychologist?
srikanth Reply
haha
Amit
hay Buddy... if You Can Help Me Let Me Know...
srikanth
ask your university, they should know, or contact a psychologist and they might be able to help you. best of luck.
Mahmoud
thank you Mahmoud Al..
srikanth
Motivation results in
Cute Reply
progress to success
SK
peace I think I have bipolarity disorder I don't want to see a psychologist in this concern how can stop having swings in moods and depression?
Imen Reply
try to meditate
Mahmoud
Meditation in this aspect will worsen the condition. please contact a psychologist
ruchi
why exactly should we meditate!!?
sanskar
you need a cognitive behavioral therapist, meditation will worsen
Suvigya
just 2 sessions changed my bipolar habits and saved my relationship with family and my partner, it is life saving
Suvigya
What does chronic mean?
ThisKidOverHere Reply
Occurring over a period of time, at least 2 weeks or more
Wayne
chronic is human health condition/disease which decode diabetes,cancer etc.
SK
In thinking about the case of Candace described earlier, do you think that Candace benefitted or suffered as a result of consistently being passed on to the next grade?
LuRay Reply
what is a narcissist
Denise Reply
Can newborns develop bad traits
Denise
isnt narcissist a chronic liar?
Steph
I believe newborns can
Steph
newborns starts to develop habits from 6-10 months after birth so sometimes they make bad traits
Poorvi
dominating personality
Deepak
are narcissists chronic liar?
Deepak
I feel like we learn things over Time and then apply these traits (whether bad or good) in our daily lives,but since new born are still very small they can't yet (unless they reach around the toddler phase)
Hibba
narcissistic person is a that type of person who loves himself only very much.....if somebody tells them anything they become very angry....
ChandraKumar
Yes, It's correct
SRINIVASULU
please which is the best school to study masters in psychology?
Anastasia
at 6-10 months you are no longer a newborn. newborns, however, only have traits consistent with survival and comfort. good and bad then, are perceptive consequences of the onlooker. a newborn will cry when hungry, sleep when tired or overwhelmed; these are traits of dependance not good or bad
Thaddeus
narcissist are only chronic liars to themselves. they need to lie in order to feel in control/over and above any and everybody else.
Thaddeus
what is psychology?
Philip Reply
psychology is the study of mental processes and behaviour
Abdul
of human beings.
Abdul
psyche (mind)+ -ology (study of) hence means study of mind
Psyche also refers to soul. it is also used to be called study of soul. but this is old definition.
Abdul
what does Hedonist mean?
Happy Reply
a person whose actions are solely motivated by personal pleasure, without any care about if and how it hurts anyone.
It's the doctrine of Aristippus, that pleasure or happiness is the chief good and chief end of man (Greek- hedone, pleasure).
a person who always seeks pleasure...a person who believes that pleasure is everything
Poorvi
Hedonism, as compared to the sexualvalues of relativism and absolutism, involves sexual behavior based on the pursuit of pleasure without the requirement for love and/or commitment.
in short, sex without feelings.
sex without feelings, just like make up with dolls😂
Smith
well, yes, it could involve that, but extreme cases, a person could start violating others so as to satiate his own libido. Sex with dolls and stuff is quite small stuff compared to that. Basically, what pleases them, they do, so are quite dangerous in that sense.
Why do you think red room and stuff exist? for the pleasure of few, but still, for pleasure. Freud indeed was right in pointing out the cause of all evil in the world- sex.
yes but still some people engage themselves in sex without any feeling ...eg.prostitution
Poorvi
@poorvi umm.. that's like saying the people who didn't help the Jews were Nazis, disregarding the fact that their hands were tied, and they could've done otherwise even if they tried to. how many of the prostitutes are true nymphomaniacs? quite a few to none.
But how many were forced to it by circumstances, or even trafficked? many to almost 90%. from homelessness to loans, even drug addiction, that's a major cause as well.
they can't be called hedonists, for they are not. though they could be, if that is, they are nymphomaniacs
you're absolutely right...but how can a person lose the addiction of pleasures ?
Poorvi
hello
Bindas
enjoying pleasure is a base human characteristic, it's being a slave to them, so much so that you refuse to recognize needs and exercise care of others in front of your own pleasures, that is dangerous and should be rid of.
Christianity tried to curb it, but instead ended up declaring sex in itself wrong. several ways were introduced for this, from Chastity belts to whips for giving in to the evil of the temptation, hell even looking for too long at someone.
again as Freud said, religion tried to kill sex, it didn't die, but became poisonous instead.
yes correct
Bindas
hey I just love psychology bcz I wanna improve myself through psychology...so can I ?
Poorvi
help can be sought for this, don't, I repeat DON'T try these orthodox methods, they work not
yes you can, start off small, but from the greats, Freud and Jung, you'll know much of psychology by just studying these two
Orthodox methods means ?
Poorvi
yk, trying to completely avoid pleasures, for as Osho said, prohibition becomes invitation. 'No Graffiti Zone' has the most graffiti. write don't peep inside on a door ajar and almost every passerby will peep in. so if you try to completely be void of desires then they'll only grow on you
(was still talking about pleasure and how to get rid of it 😅)
hey..I'm the student of class 11and I'm trying to engage myself more in studies...in simple words I wanna change myself I wanna improve myself ...I wanna be a good girl...plz plzz suggest some tips and how can I change my thinking and life..
Poorvi
that's why I was asking about the pleasure psychology
Poorvi
it'll be even better if you have a philosophical background as well.
yes I have that too...I'm biggest fan of osho and buddha
Poorvi
first things first poorvi, I don't know you, but unless you've hurt someone real real bad, like they couldn't heal, I'll say you ARE a good girl. so with that in mind, how to improve yourself even further? well, if it's studies then it depends on which line of study are you planning to pursue?
but wait who were Freud and Jung
Poorvi
they are Giants in the field of psychology, two most prominent schools are Jungian and Freudian. (Carl Gustav Jung and Sigmund Freud)
I wanna be a doctor and trying to pursue this goal
Poorvi
any specific branch in mind? like cardio or surgery or anything?
yaa oncology .. cancer surgeon bcz I wanna give the treatment to the weak section of our country who can't afford the treatment
Poorvi
ok, so your vocation has been decided for you by your parents. never mind, for it can't be changed and you will probably not agree to this, saying no you personally feel so.
by the way what you do or what you wanna be ?even what is your name
Poorvi
Anyway, the most important thing for you right now will be to not let your mind wander, to properly focus your chakras. I'll advise you to revise your study and sleep schedule so as to include a minimum of ½ hour to 1 hour study a day to max 2½ hours to ౩½ hours.
the name is Ckbite, you can look me up on insta, or Google me
and don't sit at a stretch to study for long, that way disinterest will seep in.
I can study max 4-5 hrs only...omg I can google you 😯😯
Poorvi
break your study hours into little packets of one one hour (or half, your call) and take a ten minute minimum break in between to get your mind back
thanks for suggestion but dear its hard to follow 😌
Poorvi
yes, have written some stuff, not proud of it, yet not ashamed either. though I'll advise you to not to read it, it's kinda instigating.
it ain't. I myself am from both math and science background, PCBM, and followed this tactic scoring not much, yet still a grand 82 percent
which one do you like most bio or maths ? are you doing mbbs ?
Poorvi
hated both equally, got out and into a totally different stream after 12. am not much of a sucker for mainstream stuff
don't study at stretch, but in small small periods. next, get notes from Allen, arrange for them, they really help. next, set small goals, not that you have to finish this whole chapter in a week, but that you have to cover these two pages in two days or something, that way when you'll accomplish -
that, your brain will produce the reward hormones (I forget the name) and you will stay interested and it might even become fun, and kinda challenging
hmm ok I'll try
Poorvi
are you talking about the dopamine ?
Poorvi
don't compare to others, but try and defeat your own time. like I had completed two pages in two days, today I'll try three pages in two days.
seems odd I know, childish even,but that's the way brain works, if it senses youre doing great, it puts in even more effort
after taking break engag in studies again is too difficult
Poorvi
it's easy, mark your last read spot, and when you get back, start from a or two paragraphs before that, so that you can catch the thread once again
after taking breaks mind says "hey no need to do study again...just play and have fun"
Poorvi
that's why set a fix time quota for a day, like if it's 2 hours you Have to study two hours, and it doesn't work in the long run,but for starters you can try the reward system
like if I study this much, I can watch this movie I wanted to. you know, keep your brain interested, as though it's a game, that's how you have to play. mind is a funny thing, but fooling it is quite easy
okay I got you...thanks
Poorvi
hey I couldn't find your page but can you msg me on i_believe_in_your_dreams...dp is of red coloured and the recent post is of blue colour
Poorvi
You don't get rid of it. You control it, not let ot control you.
Amanda
Hi. Can we have a discussion on narcissism?
Anindya Reply
ya shoot, you're almost speaking to one.
I feel it happens when a certain person lacks attention so they turn to them self (which is good in some ways) ....I mean Im making a guess but every person has their story 🙏
Hibba
anything specific? I'm all ears.
Kora
Narcissism fr seeking attention?!! U can say they always want attention, but it can't be the the reason
Anindya
Yeah that's why I mentioned that every person has their story, it varies ik
Hibba
What abt general narcissism?
Anindya
i just got out of a relationship with a narcissist 2 months ago. it's more than a person wanting attention, but thats part of it. they want to be center of attention, the one & only. they'll do anything to get it including psychological and physical abuse. in some it comes from childhood.
Kora
well, nope. I won't call myself a true blue narcissist, but I just know that I AM better than most of these people around. time and again when a person is downtrodden, his love made fun of, what else can he do, but love himself? that is a narcissist for you, from narcissus (Greek mythology).
Kora true. Good to hear that u got of tht abusive relationship. All the best to u for your coming days
Anindya
a person in love with his own self, do not mistake it for God complex or anything else, the term has been abused much with time. but it simply means a self obsessed person, he won't give a flying frick about your opinion enough to force you even to respect him. he knows he's the best.
And if he does do that, abusing people, trying to establish dominance, he is NOT just a narcissist (assuming he is also it)
Kora I would like to know if a narcissist develops a compulsive sexual behaviour? If u can pls put some light in this regard
Anindya
the dictionary meaning of narcissist is: "narcissist n. one who admires oneself; one who is in love with oneself" Just that, being an arsehole and justifying it with the garb of narcissism is the purest BS I've ever heard.
@anindya sexual narcissism, now that narrows down the field. they only care about themselves, so obviously it'll be rough, might border on the line of BDSM in extreme cases, male Superior position will be most likely
love making, would be replaced by just a fulfilment of his own desires. and will be quite charming before, but totally indifferent and cold afterwards
According to research on sex addiction and narcissism, both men and women in the sex- and pornography-addicted population also have narcissistic tendencies.
He'll need to be assured that he's the best sex you've ever had, that he was quite strong, yk, to salve his ego.
hedonist is the accurate term for them though 😅

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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