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During this war, Lincoln wielded a greater power than any president up to the time of Franklin D. Roosevelt and in actuality he was a dictator, from the standpoint of constitutional law. Under one of his proclamations, over 13,000 persons were arrested and confined by military authority for offenses ranging from theft of government property to treason. Lincoln had many enemies in the north, ranging from the religious Osgoodites, who considered him the Beast of the Book of Revelations, to the defeatists "Copperheads", who only wanted to negotiate and finally the "barnburning" Knights of the Golden Circle in the middle west. Lincoln also enraged the Congress by arbitrary acts that went of ten beyond the Constitution or the authority which Congress felt that he had. Until his death he was never wildly popular.

Every school child knows of General Lee's surrender to General Ulysses Grant at Appomattox on April 12, 1865 and of Lincoln's assassination at Ford's theater on the night of April 1 4th at the hand of an actor, John Wilkes Booth, declared to be insane. Some southern armies and vessels surrendered at various times subsequently, the last on November 6th, when the C.S.S. Shenandoah surrendered to British authorities. (Ref. 151 , 39 )

Map taken from Ref. 97

The immediate effects of the civil war

In the north

Production was stimulated in the north and in Philadelphia alone some 180 factories were built within 3 years. Immigration from Europe increased with 800,000 people coming within 5 years. Labor saving devices invented at that time, or in general use, included the Howe sewing machine, the Gordon McKay shoe machine and the mechanical reaper. Pennsylvania oil production went up to 128,000,000 gallons in 3 years. Ref ining methods allowed kerosene glass lamps to light American and English farmhouses. The Homestead Act in 1862 stimulated westward migration and opened up new prairie farmlands. Great fortunes were started - Armour (meatpacking), Havemeyer (sugar), Remington (guns), Carnegie (iron and steel), Borden (milk) and Marshall Field (merchandise). 40,000,000 bushels of wheat and flour were exported in 1861. New states were added during and after the civil conflict. (See map on previous page). Some 15 new colleges were established, including Vassar, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, La Salle, Cornell and Swarthmore. At the end of the war, after the Confederate General Early had raided up to within sight of the capitol, there was inflation and paper dollars fell 2/3 in value-and the cost of living soared.

In the south

The war effort absorbed all. Transportation was wanting so that food and supply distribution was very bad, both during and af ter the war. Some areas starved, while others still had plenty. Texas was geographically removed from it all and uninvaded (except by Comanches) until 1865. Luxuries were imported from Mexico.

The reconstruction period. 1865 - 1877

There was an extremely rapid demobilization of Union forces and, amazingly, generalized acceptance of the war 's result by the south. Of several thousand southerners who refused to return to allegiance to the nation, a large part went to Texas, with a few to Europe, Brazil and Mexico. Reconstruction is still a controversial subject in American history, of ten distorted by emotion. Still it was a deplorable and tragic period. For up to three years no compulsion was put on the southern states to enfranchise the Negro, but during that time nothing was done to prepare him for citizenship either and much was done to humiliate him and keep him "down". In spite of the stereotype picture of the northern Republicans beating and robbing the south, in actuality millions of dollars of northern money poured into the south for food, education and various charities. Congress, too performed wonders in relief, but not in racial adjustments. President ANDREW JOHNSON appointed provisional civil governors in every former Confederate state where Lincoln had not already done so. The South replaced slavery with the "Black Codes", which everywhere kept the Negro a second class citizen.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
is it a question of log
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
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what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
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what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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