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For example:

  • the lower the ionisation energy, the more reactive the element will be
  • how to predict the charge on cations and anions by using the periodic table

Atomic combinations

This section explores the forming of new substances with new physical and chemical properties when different combinations of atoms and molecules join together. This process is called chemical bonding, one of the most important processes in chemistry. The type of bond formed depends on the elements involved. Three types of chemical bonding: covalent, ionic and metallic bonding are discussed.

Covalent bonds form when atoms of non-metals share electrons. Why and how atoms join is described and explained by using Lewis dot diagrams and Couper notation to represent the formed molecules. Names and formulae of several covalent compounds are presented.

Ionic bonds form when electrons are transferred. Ionic bonding takes place when the difference in electronegativity between the two atoms is more than1,7. The cations and anions that form attract each other with strong electrostatic forces. Details of how ionic compounds form is clarified with Lewis notation. When learners become familiar with the diagram of the crystal lattice arrangement in an ionic compound as NaCl they will be able to derive the properties of ionic compounds.

Metallic bonding is the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged atomic nuclei of metal atoms and the delocalised electrons in the metal. The unique properties of metals as a result of this arrangement are described in detail.

States of matter and the kinetic molecular theory (kmt)

Educators should not skip this section assuming that learners know the KMT because they have been exposed to it in previous grades. As an educator you should challenge the learners to move mentally between the three ways of thinking and talking about matter, as shown in the diagram above.

Use the learner’s book to revise the following concepts:

The kinetic theory of matter states that:

  • all matter is composed of particles which have a certain amount of energy, which allows them to move at different speeds depending on the temperature (energy);
  • there are spaces between the particles and also attractive forces between particles when they come close together.

States of Matter

  • Matter exists in one of three states: solid, liquid and gas.
  • a solid has a fixed shape and volume;
  • a liquid takes on the shape of the container that it is in;
  • a gas completely fills the containers that it is in.
  • Matter can change between these states by either adding heat or removing heat.
  • Melting, boiling, freezing, condensation and sublimation are processes that take place when matter changes state.

In Grade 10 the learners should understand chemical bonds, intermolecular forces and the kinetic theory to assist them in explaining the macroscopic properties of matter, and why substances have different boiling points, densities and viscosities.

Chemical systems

The hydrosphere

The hydrosphere is made up of freshwater in rivers and lakes, the salt water of the oceans and estuaries, groundwater and water vapour. This section deals with how the hydrosphere interacts with other global systems. On exploring the hydrosphere, an investigation is proposed and guidance is given on how to choose the site, collect, and interpret the data. The very important function that water plays on our planet is highlighted, as well as threats to the hydrosphere. To cultivate an attitude of caring and responsibility towards the hydrosphere, learners are encouraged to engage in the proposed discussions on creative water conservation and investigations: how to build dams and to test the purity of water samples. As an educator you will appreciate the hints supplied for a project on water purification.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Good
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
Purification of water by natural plants and wetlands
Gift Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Physical science grade 10 teachers' guide - siyavula webbook. OpenStax CNX. Aug 10, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11342/1.1
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