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Back to America: 100 B.C to 0

North america

The far north and canada

In the very far north the Dorset Arctic tradition continued to thrive. (See particularly the 6th and 1st centuries, B.C. ). Some further remarks about the Indians on the western coast and islands of Canada seem in order. Their houses were large and rectangular with walls and roofs made of hand split boards. The roofs were gabled and there were no windows. The short front walls had small doors, usually highly decorated, sometimes with carvings, sometimes with paint. There were plaited amts on the dirt floors and no furniture. Houses could be as long as 70 feet. Social classes included a ruling aristocracy, commoners and slaves. Being basically a sea people they built sea-going canoes, some 170 feet long, 61/2 feet wide and 41/2 feet deep, which could accommodate 100 people. They navigated the open seas easily and as we shall note in a later chapter, some of their voyages undoubtedly went to the Hawaiian Islands were the people became Polynesians. The currents and winds alone sometimes carry large logs from northern Vancouver Island directly to Hawaii. The canoes were made of one-half of a large tree trunk and carried only a mat which could be used as a poor sail. For sea voyages two canoes could be tied together and a platform put over both. One man steered with a paddle in the stern and kneeling pairs of men paddled strongly. Three types of fish-hooks were used, none of which have ever been seen in Indonesia or Southeast Asia. These northwest Indians did not have pottery.

The united states

This was the beginning of the maximum expansion of the Hopewell Culture with secondary areas of influence in the so-called Marksville group near the Missisippi delta and the Santa Rosa groups at the base of the Florida peninsula. Their rather elaborate decorations (usually for the dead) included copper from Lake Superior, mica from the Appalachians, obsidian from the Rocky Mountains, alligator teeth and conch shells from Florida and the Gulf and stone from Minnesota and Wisconsin. At the risk of over-emphasizing the rather bizarre hypotheses of Barry Fell, we shall mention that he writes that the builders of the Hopewell mounds were mainly Libyans, assisted by Negroid Nubian crew members who left sculptures of heads and African animals along the Mississippi River system in Ohio, Iowa, Oklahoma and Arkansas. He even suggest that Jewish refugees from the first Romano-Jewish war ended up in Kentucky and Tennessee.

Such concepts are really not new. Early American colonists, particularly one James Adair, persistently held that one of the lost tribes of Israel had come to America and mixed with the southern Indians. Others thought that the Welsh Prince Madoc or even Phoenicians had early come to America. (Ref. 267 )

In his most recent book Fell (Ref. 66 ) gives a translation from Plutarch which allegedly tells of how Greek North Africans (Late Carthaginians) sailed westward from Britain passing three island groups equidistant from one another (Orkneys, Shetlands and Faeros?), and then to Ogygia (Iceland?) five sailing days away and then on to the northern coast of a continent, Epeiros, that rims the ocean. South Greenland would fit the alleged distance and direction. Then, says Plutarch,

The exact sources of the Plutarch material are not given by Fell. He says simply that Plutarch, writing in the 2nd century, allegedly got his material from old records in Carthage.
if one sails south along the coast one will pass a frozen sea and come to a land where the Greeks settled and married with the native barbarians. (The Davis Strait between Labrador and Greenland becomes an impassable mass of floating ice during the summer season.) As for the place where the Greeks married, Plutarch says it was in the same latitude as the Caspian Sea, thus Nova Scotia and New England. It is in connection with this that Fell quotes Dr. Silas Rand
Similarly, we have no source reference concerning Dr. Rand.
who spent a lifetime in the last century among the Micmac and who wrote a Dictionary of the Micmac Language , as indicating a prevalence of Greek roots in their language. An illustrative list of over 50 such Greek roots are given by Fell along with the Micmac equivalents, implying a derivation from the Greek spoken in North Africa in Ptolemaic times, words that were a part of the everyday language of Libya and Egypt. This concept has been reported false by the Smithsonian institute.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
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Akash Reply
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Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
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s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
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What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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Ramkumar Reply
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Sravani Reply
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Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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