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    Procedure for measures of two beats

  1. Same setup, with an object for conductor to beat on. The "orchestra" claps or plays on instruments.
  2. The conductor holds the baton in the right hand.
  3. The conductor beats measures, one-two-one-two-one-two, making two different kinds of motions:
  4. On "one", the baton starts in front of the conductor (baton tip approximately in front of the middle of the chest), beats on the object, and bounces off to the right.
  5. On "two", the baton starts off to the right (baton tip approximately in front of the right shoulder), beats on the object and bounces up to end up right in front of the conductor again.
  6. Point out how easy this makes it for the orchestra to keep track of where they are in the measure. Have them clap on one and stomp on two. Or divide the class into two sections. One section claps on one, the other claps or stomps on two. Or drums play on one, bells on two, etc.
  7. Once the conductors get used to the different motions, take away the object and have them "beat" in the air again.

    Procedure for measures of three beats

  1. Same setup, but with three objects for the conductor to beat time on, one directly in front, and one in front and slightly to the conductor's right, one in front and slightly to the conductor's left.
  2. Beat "one" is on the object in front of the conductor.
  3. Beat "two" is on the object to the conductor's left.
  4. Beat "three" is on the object to the conductor's right.
  5. This time, divide the class into three groups, or have the class do three different things on the different beats (clap, stomp, and slap thighs, for example).
  6. Again, if the exercise is successful, repeat it with the conductor "beating" in the air rather than on objects.

The conductor gives cues


  • The student who is designated conductor will conduct the meter with the right hand while giving special cues with the left.
  • The other students will watch the designated conductor carefully, playing the appropriate sound for each beat in the meter, or responding to left-hand cues.


  1. If you have older students who can handle all of the above and still want more, add cues.
  2. Tell the students that with the left hand the conductor does other things like telling people to play louder or softer and giving cues.
  3. Tell your students: holding the left hand out palm up means "louder"; holding it out palm down means "softer".
  4. Let them experiment with this while conducting in two or three.
  5. Tell your students that, with the left hand, the conductor may also give cues to people who don't play very often, like the cymbal or gong player, in case they have lost count of the measures.
  6. Give a couple of students special instruments and tell them only to play when the conductor cues them by pointing at them with the left hand. Point out that, when giving cues, it is very helpful to make eye contact and to point with a dramatic gesture so that the players are not caught by surprise.
  7. Rotate both the conducting and the special instruments so that everyone gets a chance both to give cues and to respond to cues.
  • Attend a conducted band, orchestra, or choir concert.
  • View a video or television program of a concert in which the conductor can be seen at least some of the time.
  • Following the concert or video, discuss what the students noticed the conductor doing or not doing. Was a baton used or the hands? Pointing? Eye contact? Body language? Vocal cues? If the program included pieces conducted by different people, did they notice differences in conducting style?
  • Before the students attend the performance or watch the tape, tell them you will ask for a critique of the conducting aspects of the performance. Suggest that they listen for whether the ensemble plays precisely together, and watch the players and conductor for signs of visual communication. Was there good communication between the conductor and the performers? Did the ensemble have any problems playing "together"? Did the problems appear to be caused by inattention in the players? Errors or ambiguity in the conducting? Lack of familiarity with, or difficulty performing, the music? Was any noticeable attempt made to "regroup"? If the ensemble did a very good job of playing together with precision, what practices did the students notice that might have helped them stay together so well? Were there any visual indications that they were together, such as breathing or moving at the same time? This can be either a class discussion or an unusual essay assignment.
  • Invite a local group of musicians that uses a conductor to perform for your class. Give the conductor a chance to demonstrate and talk about what he or she does. Or invite just the conductor to conduct your class using the proper motions rather than beating on objects. Conductors of local amateur or youth music groups, or students of conducting or of music education at a local music school, may be particularly willing to do this for you.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
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Devang Reply
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Abhijith Reply
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s. Reply
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Sanket Reply
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Damian Reply
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abeetha Reply
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Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
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I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Noisy learning: loud but fun music education activities. OpenStax CNX. May 17, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10222/1.7
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