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(Note that while the containment hierarchy of local classes is independent of the inheritance hierarchy, it is technically possible toestablish an inheritance relationship between a local class and one of its enclosing classes. For example, by making a couple of minor modifications,it is possible to cause the local class B in this program to extend the enclosing class A instead of the top-level class Y .)

The controlling class

The entire controlling class named InnerClasses07 , including the main method and a static variable named baseTime , is shown in Listing 1 .

The static variable named baseTime is initialized with the current date and time in milliseconds (relative to January 1, 1970). This static variable is used later as a base to establish the relative points in time thatcertain activities occur during the execution of the program.

The main method

The main method shown in Listing 1 instantiates a new object of the class named A and calls the method named meth on that object.

This method will sequentially instantiate two separate objects of a local class named B that is defined inside the method named meth . Then the method named meth will call a method named showB on each of those objects, causing them to display data values that illustrate the characteristicsof local classes.

The class named X

The top-level class named X is shown in Listing 2 .

The class named A extends this class to illustrate the difference between the inheritance hierarchy and the containment hierarchy. Note that thisclass defines and initializes a protected instance variable, which will be accessed later to illustrate the inheritance hierarchy.

(Somewhat surprisingly, you will also see later that this protected instance variable belonging to the superclass of the enclosing class A is also accessible by methods belonging to an object of the local class viathe containment hierarchy.)

The class named Y

The top-level class named Y is shown in Listing 3 .

The local class named B extends this class to illustrate the difference between the inheritance hierarchy and the containment hierarchy.

Note that this class defines and initializes a protected instance variable. It alsooverrides the toString method, which is inherited from the Object class.

The instance variable and the overridden toString method will be accessed later to illustrate the inheritance hierarchy.

The class named A

The code in Listing 4 shows the beginning of the top-level class named A .

This code declares and initializes a private instance variable named aTime , which establishes the relative time that an object of class A is instantiated.

This private instance variable will be accessed directly by code belonging to an object of the local class B , which is contained by an object of the class A .

Listing 4 also shows the constructor for class A , which displays the time whenever an object is instantiated from class A .

The screen output

The code shown earlier in the main method of Listing 1 instantiates an object of class A . This causes the screen output shown in Figure 2 .

(Note that the relative time output value on your system may be different, depending on the speed of your system and the impact of otherapplications that may be running concurrently.)

Questions & Answers

Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Object-oriented programming (oop) with java. OpenStax CNX. Jun 29, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11441/1.201
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