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(Note that while the containment hierarchy of local classes is independent of the inheritance hierarchy, it is technically possible toestablish an inheritance relationship between a local class and one of its enclosing classes. For example, by making a couple of minor modifications,it is possible to cause the local class B in this program to extend the enclosing class A instead of the top-level class Y .)

The controlling class

The entire controlling class named InnerClasses07 , including the main method and a static variable named baseTime , is shown in Listing 1 .

The static variable named baseTime is initialized with the current date and time in milliseconds (relative to January 1, 1970). This static variable is used later as a base to establish the relative points in time thatcertain activities occur during the execution of the program.

The main method

The main method shown in Listing 1 instantiates a new object of the class named A and calls the method named meth on that object.

This method will sequentially instantiate two separate objects of a local class named B that is defined inside the method named meth . Then the method named meth will call a method named showB on each of those objects, causing them to display data values that illustrate the characteristicsof local classes.

The class named X

The top-level class named X is shown in Listing 2 .

The class named A extends this class to illustrate the difference between the inheritance hierarchy and the containment hierarchy. Note that thisclass defines and initializes a protected instance variable, which will be accessed later to illustrate the inheritance hierarchy.

(Somewhat surprisingly, you will also see later that this protected instance variable belonging to the superclass of the enclosing class A is also accessible by methods belonging to an object of the local class viathe containment hierarchy.)

The class named Y

The top-level class named Y is shown in Listing 3 .

The local class named B extends this class to illustrate the difference between the inheritance hierarchy and the containment hierarchy.

Note that this class defines and initializes a protected instance variable. It alsooverrides the toString method, which is inherited from the Object class.

The instance variable and the overridden toString method will be accessed later to illustrate the inheritance hierarchy.

The class named A

The code in Listing 4 shows the beginning of the top-level class named A .

This code declares and initializes a private instance variable named aTime , which establishes the relative time that an object of class A is instantiated.

This private instance variable will be accessed directly by code belonging to an object of the local class B , which is contained by an object of the class A .

Listing 4 also shows the constructor for class A , which displays the time whenever an object is instantiated from class A .

The screen output

The code shown earlier in the main method of Listing 1 instantiates an object of class A . This causes the screen output shown in Figure 2 .

(Note that the relative time output value on your system may be different, depending on the speed of your system and the impact of otherapplications that may be running concurrently.)

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Object-oriented programming (oop) with java. OpenStax CNX. Jun 29, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11441/1.201
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