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Technological globalization

Technological globalization is speeded in large part by technological diffusion    , the spread of technology across borders. In the last two decades, there has been rapid improvement in the spread of technology to peripheral and semi-peripheral nations, and a 2008 World Bank report discusses both the benefits and ongoing challenges of this diffusion. In general, the report found that technological progress and economic growth rates were linked, and that the rise in technological progress has helped improve the situations of many living in absolute poverty (World Bank 2008). The report recognizes that rural and low-tech products such as corn can benefit from new technological innovations, and that, conversely, technologies like mobile banking can aid those whose rural existence consists of low-tech market vending. In addition, technological advances in areas like mobile phones can lead to competition, lowered prices, and concurrent improvements in related areas such as mobile banking and information sharing.

However, the same patterns of social inequality that create a digital divide in the United States also create digital divides within peripheral and semi-peripheral nations. While the growth of technology use among countries has increased dramatically over the past several decades, the spread of technology within countries is significantly slower among peripheral and semi-peripheral nations. In these countries, far fewer people have the training and skills to take advantage of new technology, let alone access it. Technological access tends to be clustered around urban areas and leaves out vast swaths of peripheral-nation citizens. While the diffusion of information technologies has the potential to resolve many global social problems, it is often the population most in need that is most affected by the digital divide. For example, technology to purify water could save many lives, but the villages in peripheral nations most in need of water purification don’t have access to the technology, the funds to purchase it, or the technological comfort level to introduce it as a solution.

The mighty cell phone: how mobile phones are impacting sub-saharan africa

Many of Africa’s poorest countries suffer from a marked lack of infrastructure including poor roads, limited electricity, and minimal access to education and telephones. But while landline use has not changed appreciably during the past ten years, there’s been a fivefold increase in mobile phone access; more than a third of people in Sub-Saharan Africa have the ability to access a mobile phone (Katine 2010). Even more can use a “village phone”—through a shared-phone program created by the Grameen Foundation. With access to mobile phone technology, a host of benefits become available that have the potential to change the dynamics in these poorest nations. Sometimes that change is as simple as being able to make a phone call to neighboring market towns. By finding out which markets have vendors interested in their goods, fishers and farmers can ensure they travel to the market that will serve them best and avoid a wasted trip. Others can use mobile phones and some of the emerging money-sending systems to securely send money to a family member or business partner elsewhere (Katine 2010).

These shared-phone programs are often funded by businesses like Germany’s Vodafone or Britain’s Masbabi, which hope to gain market share in the region. Phone giant Nokia points out that there are 4 billion mobile phone users worldwide—that’s more than twice as many people as have bank accounts—meaning there is ripe opportunity to connect banking companies with people who need their services (ITU Telecom 2009). Not all access is corporate-based, however. Other programs are funded by business organizations that seek to help peripheral nations with tools for innovation and entrepreneurship.

But this wave of innovation and potential business comes with costs. There is, certainly, the risk of cultural imperialism, and the assumption that core nations (and core-nation multinationals) know what is best for those struggling in the world’s poorest communities. Whether well intentioned or not, the vision of a continent of Africans successfully chatting on their iPhone may not be ideal. Like all aspects of global inequity, access to technology in Africa requires more than just foreign investment. There must be a concerted effort to ensure the benefits of technology get to where they are needed most.

Summary

Technology drives globalization, but what that means can be hard to decipher. While some economists see technological advances leading to a more level playing field where anyone anywhere can be a global contender, the reality is that opportunity still clusters in geographically advantaged areas. Still, technological diffusion has led to the spread of more and more technology across borders into peripheral and semi-peripheral nations. However, true technological global equality is a long way off.

Short answer

Do you believe that technology has indeed flattened the world in terms of providing opportunity? Why, or why not? Give examples to support your reason.

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Where do you get your news? Is it owned by a large conglomerate (you can do a web search and find out!)? Does it matter to you who owns your local news outlets? Why, or why not?

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Who do you think is most likely to bring innovation and technology (like cell phone businesses) to Sub-Saharan Africa: nonprofit organizations, governments, or businesses? Why?

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Further research

Check out more on the global digital divide here: (External Link)

References

Acker, Jenny C., and Isaac M. Mbiti. 2010. “Mobile Phones and Economic Development in Africa.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 24(3):207–232. Retrieved January 12, 2012 ( [link] pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdf/10.1257/jep.24.3.207 ).

Bagdikian, Ben H. 2004. The New Media Monopoly . Boston, MA: Beacon Press Books.

Bristow, Michael. 2011. “Can China Control Social Media Revolution?” BBC News China, November 2. Retrieved January 14, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Compaine, B. 2005. “Global Media.” Pp. 97-101 in Living in the Information Age: A New Media Reader Belmont: Wadsworth Thomson Learning.

Friedman, Thomas. 2005. The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century . New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.

ITU News. 2009. “ITU Telecom World 2009: Special Report: Reflecting New Needs and Realities.” November. Retrieved January 14, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Jan, Mirza. 2009. “Globalization of Media: Key Issues and Dimensions.” European Journal of Scientific Research 29:66–75.

Katine Chronicles Blog. 2010. “Are Mobile Phones Africa’s Silver Bullet?” The Guardian , January 14. Retrieved January 12, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Ma, Damien. 2011. “2011: When Chinese Social Media Found Its Legs.” The Atlantic , December 18. Retrieved January 15, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

McLuhan, Marshall. 1964. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man . New York: McGraw-Hill.

Pierson, David. 2012. “Number of Web Users in China Hits 513 Million.” Los Angeles Times , January 16. Retrieved January 16, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

The World Bank. 2008. “Global Economic Prospects 2008: Technology Diffusion in the Developing World.” World Bank . Retrieved January 24, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Questions & Answers

what are the need of sociology for uneducated people like velliger people who living beside the cities?
Abshar Reply
who is durkheim
Sherie Reply
Émile Durkheim One of the Founding Father (1858-1917) His ideas on the • Division of Labor • Sociological Method • Suicide • Religion
Christopher
what do you mean by the perspective of education
aditya Reply
educational perspectives is a not-for-profit international education  research organizations, which extends to institutions & organizations who wish to enroll international students, license someone who has completed their education in another country, or even offer them employment
Holly
can you suggest any sociologist who gave this idea in brief
aditya
what is optimum theory
Ghulam
Auguste Comte. The French philosopher Auguste Comte (1798–1857) First founder
Holly
Auguste Comte is seen as the father of sociology. He was well versed in Comte: Charles Darwin's Origin of the Species
Holly
The three founding fathers of sociology are Emile Durkheim, Max Weber, and Karl Marx.
Holly
there is also mother founders too who was Harriet Martineau. She was considered the "Mother" of sociology & the first to be able to translate the work of the early sociological theorists into English. Harriet's translations were very crucial to the development of American sociology.
Holly
Emile Durkheim (1858—1917) was a Frenchman sociologist. Whom rose to prominence in the late 19th and early 20thcenturies.
Holly
The optimum theroy is a population that had appeared as a reaction to the Malthusian theroy, which had criticizing the approach of the Malthusian theroy of Population, modern economists Edwin Cannan & Carr Saunders of London.
Holly
what is the subject matter of sociology?
Ajazul
the subject matter of sociology is to process human association. When Comtel came up with the name of "sociology," & parallel. it was subsequent attempts a definite content & one mode of attack was upon the proposed science has been denial.
Holly
tell me more about George Hebert Mead please
Taina
he is the schooler
Tanimu
George Herbert Mead was believed to have thought peoples develop self-images via interaction with other people. He argued that the self, which is the part of a person's personality consisting of self-awareness & self-image, is a product of social experience.
Holly
thanx a lot Holly Marie.
Ajazul
what's about the history of sociology?
Ajazul
who is George Herbert Mead ?
Ajazul
a sociologist
Taina
is father founder.
Tanimu
what's about. George Herbert Mead ?
Ajazul
who is the father of sociology? you know we are dealing with the fathers.
Tanimu
August Comte
Rhoda
Please suggest me topics for thesis?
WAJID Reply
what is the relevent important of sociology of education in a training teacher
ADAM
socio-cultural problem of single mother's ?
Sumbul
Wajid which locality do you belong to? It should be relavent to the issues you and your community experiences.
Sadiq
Adam Adamu what do you mean by a training teacher?
Sadiq
what is need of sociology in Pakistani culture
Abshar
Sumbul Khan there are numerous problums faced by the single mothers in a particular society. Most of the times when there is no support and protection, They both will be unsecure in numerous ways i.e educationaly, financialy, health wise, and will be prone to moral degradation and harrasment...
Sadiq
Is sociology a good optional subject for upsc ?
sohit
At Abshar khan, see, a layman cannot understand the society the way a sociologist did..a critical understand is necessary for solving the core issues or problems of the society.
Sumbul
On the other hand as we know that cultur is a way of life so the single mother with her children would be devalued if there is lack of morality there should be numerous factors contributing to the it, different social setup creats different cultural problems as it is a relative phenomenon.
Sadiq
At sadiq,thank you for your explanation but that's the topic name I am suggesting to Wajid for his thesis.
Sumbul
Oh! Realy anyway it is a good one.
Sadiq
sumbul why we will learning eng. Eng is not our colligue language. our culture is following English normally when we study in schools college it's will most important that we will learn English but I think this is not imptnt that if we will learn our colegue language I mean Hindi,chinese,pushto ?
Abshar
The Socio-Psychological impacts of internet uses on illiterate teenagers.
Sadiq
@Abshar see It's a truth that we are using English language more than even our own language,but today's generation want job and money(vch is must for our survival)vch our country is unfortunate wouldn't able to provide us..and fr the better standard of living v have to move in some other countries.
Sumbul
to create a peaceful environment all country members and others should come together and resolve all the problems that occurs across the countries
aditya
okkk tnx Mam
Abshar
Hey, I am very thankful for your support and guidance.
WAJID
Sadiq, My supervisor rejected that topic because many students have already done it. You can please suggest another one to me.
WAJID
when you talk of sociology, it's too large to talk about
AUDU
My supervisor rejected almost 20 topics which i have recommended.
WAJID
I am very thankful for ur better guidance and ur material
Ghulam
u can suggest sir another topics plz
Ghulam
Sociology
Ghulam
Sir tomarrow i have exam plz send me caste and class topic
Ghulam
is sociology have any relationship with geology
Ghulam
sociology is the mother of all social sciences and yes there are some basic relationship of sociology with geology.
Roohullah
yes definitely
Sadiq
geology is a general science or particular science
Ghulam
sociology has a pattern of social relationships, social interaction & culture. The term was introduced by a Frenchman called Auguste Compte during the 1830s, in which he suggested a synthetic science uniting allknowledge about human activity. It development, structure & functioning of human society
Holly
Roohullah khan, Can you please elaborate further?
WAJID
Holly, suggest me topics for thesis?
WAJID
send me topics of caste and class system
Ghulam
anybody knows Spanish🙁
Nolissa Reply
little words Google translater helps lol
Holly
this is not a language forum
Floxy
define stereotype with an example?
Bernard Reply
it's a mistaken idea or belief that several people have about something.
aditya
what kind of idea? please be more specific
Bernard
stereotypes can be seen by an over-generalized belief about a particular group of people i.e when we make quick decisions, they may be erroneous when applied to particular individuals. It can also encourage prejudice & may arise for a number of reasons.
Holly
the generalization of group of streotype because of the certain beliefs of other groups?
Bernard
Identifing someone or something based on race, ethnicity, gender, etc (generally physically) therefore (for example) if there is a Muslim kid wearing traditional clothing, you cannot identify that person as a terrorist based on their appearance. You cannot judge a book by its cover basically...
SATROHAN
if i say stereotypes based on race lead to racism, gender lead to sexism/ masculinity/feminism, and ageism like young and adults is that correct?
Bernard
What is Cultural Revivalism ?
aditya
It refers to the formation of a group identity which is around a common culture. Which is recovered after losses that are due to colonization, forced or voluntary relocation, oppression, or modernization
Holly
how is emergency of sociology linked with modernization of Europe ?
aditya Reply
hello everyone am francis
Francis Reply
what is value in sociology
aditya Reply
Its give us to know about every field of human interaction
Akak
it's the Importantance and lasting beliefs or ideals which are shared by the members of a culture about what is good or bad & desirable or undesirable. Values are deemed a major influence on which a person's behavior & attitude can serve as a broad guidelines in all situations.
Holly
what is meant by folkways
Akak
folkways are customs or conventions in everyday life, from different types of social norm & expectations for how we act. Sociology, folkways can generally be discussed in contrast to mores because they are both types of social norms & can vary from traditional behaviour or way of life.
Holly
folkways is a type of deviant that has no too strong sanctions applied when an act is committed by a person in a society.
Christopher
what are the examples of folkways
Yunusa
what is meant by inter generational and intra generational mobility
Akak
examples of folkways are to coercive force by shaping our values, beliefs, behavior, and interactions. Religions also have prohibitions on cohabitating with a romantic partner before marriage.
Holly
intergenerational mobility can refer to any changes in which family's social position between generations & contrast to intragenerational  mobility, of which is a person's social movement within his/hers lifetime.
Holly
what is social status ?
Sarah Reply
individuals possession
Akak
possession of wealth and degree ?
Sarah
human view...that is whatever u r belong too
Akak
ok thnx
Sarah
Your social status in your social environment.
Muhib
social status is an individual materialistic wealth
Sumbul
Race, birth, Caste these social status...
Dr.
Your social status is where you appear on the socialogical map and can effect everything from the schools you can go to or the way you are treated?
James
we all have a sense of system in which society, social classentails determination a person's social class, which is based on socioeconomic variables that is mainly income, wealth and education
Holly
what is social justice
Adabara
social justice is in terms a distribution of wealth, opportunities & privileges that is within a society of individuality. Which gives way to the struggle to social justice.
Holly
what is social mobility
Akak
In my opinion, it's like your ability to move up or down the social ladder in society depending on the way you handle your finances or assets
Nolissa
what is value in sociology?
aditya
Also, social mobility is attained or ascribed.
Justbe
value is the thing cherish in the society
Adu
what is belief
Ghulam
what is clan
Ghulam
Faith, for many it is belief without knowing.
Leonard
what is role
Ghulam
what is commodifiction
Ghulam
Commodify- Make natural resources a Commodity- A product for the soul purpose of profiteering.
Leonard
what is meant by social class
Akak
Established role
WAJID
recent changes in indian caste
Ghulam
what is the relevance importance of sociology of education in a training teacher ?
ADAM
sociol status is ascribed or achieved
Ghulam
@ghulam hassan ineed good essay on social status
Sarah
to know how in interaction with his students with their behaviours
Ibrahim
in the us there is on advertage 6 social classes, they are upper class, new money, middle class, poverty, working poor, working class. a div ision of a society based on social and economic status. it also means different walks of life .
Holly
what is meant by crime
Ghulam
commodification is a transformation of goods, services, ideas & people.
Holly
Clan is a close-knit of people especially in the scottlish Highlanders.
Holly
crime is an act of that is carried out by a person or group of people & is an illegal action or activity which is punishable by law
Holly
social mobility is layers & layers of movement which is defined by families, households or other categories of people.it can also be seen as social class, individuals earnings & family incomes
Holly
a role is a behaviour in which individual occupies a social status & comprehensive behaviour.
Holly
the role of a sociology teacher is so that he/she can get a clear understanding of there students background & there educational experiences
Holly
belief is something we all have in everyday life from trust religion confidence acceptance of if something exists or not it can be anything
Holly
what is culture
Mohammad Reply
is the total way of life
Tanimu
manners and art that are favored by social group
Twum
Man made part of environment is called culture
WAJID
defferentiat b/w sociology and anthropology.
Tanimu
what is the meaning of culture
Nithin Reply
culture in it's simplest term means the people way of life
Floxy
Culture is thd way of life people of a given society live on.
Sadiq
culture differs from society to society. when u hear or see a particular culture of a group of people. it will b easy for u to know th particular society dat has the culture. hope I tried. correction is allowed.
Floxy
man made enviorment is called culture
Ismail
man made enviorment is called culture
Ismail
defferentiat b/w culture and society
Tanimu
hello what is the different between crime and offence
Floxy Reply
crime refers to the actions of committing the mistakes but offense refers to the words of committing the mistakes
Bee
subject matter and nature of sociology ..can u plz help m
Inoto
social interaction and intergration
Tilahun
Gender issues example
Je Reply
what is the relationship between sociology and psychology...similarities and differences
NICHOLUS Reply
I'm unsure but I'm going to guess that one's studies the social interactions and environments and Psychology studies the brain and why one does react certain ways to certain things in society/ the environment and so on. It's much deeper than that but that's the surface of it I believe.
whitney
Yes Whitney, my understanding is the same. Further to your explanation, Sociologists examine problems and causes, then identify solutions. For example Durkhime (1879), his study on suicide.
Justbe
The similarities are that they both study social behaviour. They just do it from a different point of view.
Justbe
Sociology deals with the external behavior( attitude, style) while psychology with the Internal (brain)
WAJID
It's better start the dispute between these two departments.. Anyone interested
WAJID
Sociology studies the structure and function of society and what factors disturbs the social setup means a social problem while Psychology is the study of mental processes.
Sadiq
Relationship is that both provides explanation and remedies to the problems arise in social setup. Individuals affect society while society affect individual. Somtimes both approaches to same problem debffirently.
Sadiq
Psychology deals mainly with the brain buh has social values embedded under itself... sociology cannot simply move on without psychology
Barimah
Sociology is an independent discipline which have its own way of approaching towards social issues it has its founding father since 14th century Ibn e Khaldun. It is the mother of social sciences.
Sadiq
Discuss conflict perspective and give 8 references
Tsolo

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