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Natural sciences

Grade 4

Planet earth and the universe

Module 49

The seasons in the polar regions


Talking about the seasons in the polar regions

[lo 1.3]

If we look at a globe, the North Pole is at the top and the South Pole is at the bottom. The northern polar region is also known as the Arctic and the southern polar region is called Antarctica. These are some of the coldest parts of the whole world and many parts are covered in ice throughout the year.

Different kinds of ice:

Ice formed on land is called sheet ice.

Ice “rivers” that are formed on mountains and move slowly down the valleys to the sea, are called glaciers.

Floating ice formed on the surface of the sea is called pack ice.

  • As the earth orbits the sun, the weather changes according to seasonal patterns. During the warm summer months more solar energy reaches the earth than in the cold winter months. The nearer you live to the Polar Regions, the more noticeable the changes are. Many animals and plants are affected quite drastically by the seasons and adapt their lives to the seasonal changes.


  • During autumn many animals prepare for winter when it will be very difficult for many of them to find food. They collect food and store it in safe places. Some birds migrate to warmer parts of the world.
  • Some trees lose their leaves in autumn.


  • The fur of most animals becomes thicker to enable them to cope better with the winter cold. They only need a few things to survive the winter: food, shelter and water. Just before the worst cold of winter, some animals eat lots of food and then sleep to conserve energy. We talk about them hibernating. You can help birds in your garden to survive by putting out food for them.
  • Trees that lose their leaves protect the new leaves for the coming year within their buds.


  • Buds and blossoms appear everywhere when it is time for new leaves and flowers. Animals once again become active and prepare their shelters for their young. Animals that have hibernated wake up. The warmth of the spring and spring rains allow the grasses to grow for the animals to eat.
  • Birds that migrated return and prepare nests to lay their eggs. By the time that the eggs hatch in late spring there will be sufficient insects for them to eat.


  • Plants grow quickly because there is sufficient sunlight. Animals shelter in the shade when it becomes too hot. Many animals now give birth to young that need care. Animals look for water to help keep cool.

Organise an exhibition around each season in your class. Bring things to school that relate to specific seasons.


LEARNING OUTCOME 1 : SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS The learner will be able to act confidently on curiosity about natural phenomena, and to investigate relationships and solve problems in scientific, technological and environmental contexts.

Assessment Standard

We know this when the learner

1.3 evaluates data and provides feedback on observations.


Mr Brain Cell:

  • Why is it so cold at the poles?Answer
  • When the sun shines on the equator, all the rays are close together and therefore it is hot there. Since the earth is ball-shaped, the rays are spread over larger areas closer to the north and south poles. The rays are weaker, and therefore it is cold at the poles.

Mr Brain Cell:

  • How is an iceberg formed?
  • Make one for yourself so you can see the large section of ice that stays submerged, and the section that is above water. What danger does this hold for ships? Which ship sank as a result of hitting an ice-berg in 1912?Answer:
  • Fill a plastic bag with water and freeze it. Remove the ice from the bag and put it in a bowl of water. See how large the part is that stays under water!
  • Large pieces of ice break from icecaps and glaciers and float on the sea. As they drift to warmer seas, they start to melt and break up. However, some icebergs can take up to three years to melt.
  • Titanic

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
is it a question of log
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 4. OpenStax CNX. Sep 18, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11096/1.1
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