<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >


The results section consists of two subsections; item analysis and inferential statistical analyses. First, principals’ responses to items within subscales are reported using the median value and the percentage point differential between positive responses and negative responses for each item. Second, the results from the inferential statistical analyses are presented.

Item analysis

Beliefs about curriculum

Eight items represent principals’ beliefs about curriculum. Principals agreed (median value was 4) with five of eight curriculum items (see Table 1). Principals agreed that (a) high stakes testing has resulted in principals paying more attention to the school’s curriculum, (b) students’ scores provide feedback to improve the curriculum, (c) high stakes testing requires teachers to teach to the test, (d) high stakes testing has led principals to rethink about subject matter that is important to teach, and (e) high stakes testing promotes some subject area content over other subject content. Principals neither agreed nor disagreed (median value of 3) with the statement that high stakes test items reflect the content students learn in a school’s curriculum. Finally, principals disagreed (median value of 2) that students’ scores reflect the quality of a school’s curriculum and that high stakes testing is consistent with a balanced curriculum.

Table 1: percentage of responses and descriptive statistics by item for beliefs about curriculum

Item 1 a 2 3 4 5 Mdn M SD
1 High stakes testing has led principals to reassess their beliefs about subject matter that is important to teach. 1 9 7 50 33 4.00 4.04 0.93
2 High stakes testing is consistent with the idea of a balanced curriculum (attention to all subjects). 8 54 12 20 6 2.00 2.62 1.08
3 Students’ scores on a high stakes test accurately portray the quality of a school’s curriculum. 16 48 20 15 1 2.00 2.37 0.96
4 High stakes testing requires teachers to teach to the test. 6 23 18 39 15 4.00 3.34 1.15
5 High stakes test items accurately reflect the content students learn through a school’s curriculum. 4 38 24 32 3 3.00 2.92 0.98
6 High stakes testing promotes certain subject area content over other subject area content. 0 7 7 56 30 4.00 4.08 0.82
7 Students’ scores on high stakes test provide feedback for schools to improve the curriculum. 1 7 16 62 15 4.00 3.82 0.81
8 High stakes testing has caused principals to devote more attention to the school’s curriculum. 1 5 7 60 28 4.00 4.08 0.79

Note. a 1 ( Strongly Disagree ), 2 ( Disagree ), 3 ( Neither Agree nor Disagree ), 4 ( Agree ), and 5 ( Strongly Agree ).

Beliefs about teaching

Principals’ beliefs about teaching consist of 10 items . Principals agreed (median value of 4) with four statements (see Table 2). Principals agreed that (a) high stakes testing motivates teachers to improve the teaching and learning process, (b) students’ scores on a high stakes test provides feedback for teachers to improve their teaching, (c) high stakes testing has increased cooperation among teachers, and (d) high stakes testing reduces the time to teach other subjects’ content. Principals nether agreed nor disagreed (median value of 3) that (a) high stakes testing leads to better teaching, (b) the quality of a teacher’s instruction is directly related to student performance, (c) high stakes testing permits teachers to use the full range of their teaching skills, and (d) high stakes testing reduces the teaching and learning process to a student’s test score.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 12, number 1 (april 2011). OpenStax CNX. Mar 26, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11285/1.2
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Education leadership review, volume 12, number 1 (april 2011)' conversation and receive update notifications?