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Molecular structures of (a) C 60 and (b) C 70 .

Although fullerenes are composed of sp 2 carbons in a similar manner to graphite, fullerenes are soluble in various common organic solvents. Due to their hydrophobic nature, fullerenes are most soluble in CS 2 (C 60 = 7.9 mg/mL) and toluene (C 60 = 2.8 mg/mL). Although fullerenes have a conjugated system, their aromaticity is distinctive from benzene that has all C-C bonds of equal lengths, in fullerenes two distinct classes of bonds exist. The shorter bonds are at the junctions of two hexagons ([6, 6] bonds) and the longer bonds at the junctions of a hexagon and a pentagon ([5,6]bonds). This difference in bonding is responsible for some of the observed reactivity of fullerenes.

Synthesis of fullerenes

The first observation of fullerenes was in molecular beam experiments at Rice University. Subsequent studies demonstrated that C 60 it was relatively easy to produce grams of fullerenes. Although the synthesis is relatively straightforward fullerene purification remains a challenge and determines fullerene’s commercial price. The first method of production of measurable quantities of fullerenes used laser vaporization of carbon in an inert atmosphere, but this produced microscopic amounts of fullerenes. Laboratory scales of fullerene are prepared by the vaporization of carbon rods in a helium atmosphere. Commercial production ordinarily employs a simple ac or dc arc. The fullerenes in the black soot collected are extracted in toluene and purified by liquid chromatography. The magenta C 60 comes off the column first, followed by the red C 70 , and other higher fullerenes. Even though the mechanism of a carbon arc differs from that of a resistively heated carbon rod (because it involves a plasma) the He pressure for optimum C 60 formation is very similar.

A ratio between the mass of fullerenes and the total mass of carbon soot defines fullerene yield. The yields determined by UV-Vis absorption are approximately 40%, 10-15%, and 15% in laser, electric arc, and solar processes. Interestingly, the laser ablation technique has both the highest yield and the lowest productivity and, therefore, a scale-up to a higher power is costly. Thus, fullerene commercial production is a challenging task. The world's first computer controlled fullerene production plant is now operational at the MER Corporation, who pioneered the first commercial production of fullerene and fullerene products.

Endohedral fullerenes

Endohedral fullerenes are fullerenes that have incorporated in their inner sphere atoms, ions or clusters. Endohedral fullerenes are generally divided into two groups: endohedral metallofullerenes and non-metal doped fullerenes. The first endohedral metallofullerenes was called La@C 60 . The @ sign in the name reflects the notion of a small molecule trapped inside a shell.

Doping fullerenes with metals takes place in-situ during the fullerene synthesis in an arc reactor or via laser evaporation. A wide range of metals have been encased inside a fullerene, i.e., Sc, Y, La, Ce, Ba, Sr, K, U, Zr, and Hf. Unfortunately, the synthesis of endohedral metallofullerenes is unspecific because in addition a high yield of unfilled fullerenes, compounds with different cage sizes are prepared (e.g., La@C 60 or La@C 82 ). A characteristic of endohedral metallofullerenes is that electrons will transfer from the metal atom to the fullerene cage and that the metal atom takes a position off-center in the cage. The size of the charge transfer is not always simple to determine, but it is usually between 2 and 3 units (e.g., La 2 @C 80 ) but can be as high as 6 electrons (e.g., Sc 3 N@C 80 ). These anionic fullerene cages are very stable molecules and do not have the reactivity associated with ordinary empty fullerenes (see below). This lack of reactivity is utilized in a method to purify endohedral metallofullerenes from empty fullerenes.

Questions & Answers

how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
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Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
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Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Carbon nanotubes. OpenStax CNX. Sep 30, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11576/1.1
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