# Symbols and their meanings

 Page 1 / 1
This module defines symbols used throughout the Collaborative Statistics textbook.
Symbols and their meanings
Chapter (1st used) Symbol Spoken Meaning
Sampling and Data $\sqrt{}$ The square root of same
Sampling and Data $\pi$ Pi 3.14159… (a specific number)
Descriptive Statistics $\mathrm{Q1}$ Quartile one the first quartile
Descriptive Statistics $\mathrm{Q2}$ Quartile two the second quartile
Descriptive Statistics $\mathrm{Q3}$ Quartile three the third quartile
Descriptive Statistics $\mathrm{IQR}$ inter-quartile range Q3-Q1=IQR
Descriptive Statistics $\overline{x}$ x-bar sample mean
Descriptive Statistics $\mu$ mu population mean
Descriptive Statistics $s$ ${s}_{x}$ $\mathrm{sx}$ s sample standard deviation
Descriptive Statistics ${s}^{2}$ ${s}_{x}^{2}$ s-squared sample variance
Descriptive Statistics $\sigma$ ${\sigma }_{x}$ $\mathrm{\sigma x}$ sigma population standard deviation
Descriptive Statistics ${\sigma }^{2}$ ${\sigma }_{x}^{2}$ sigma-squared population variance
Descriptive Statistics $\Sigma$ capital sigma sum
Probability Topics $\left\{\right\}$ brackets set notation
Probability Topics $S$ S sample space
Probability Topics $A$ Event A event A
Probability Topics $P\left(A\right)$ probability of A probability of A occurring
Probability Topics $P\left(A\mid B\right)$ probability of A given B prob. of A occurring given B has occurred
Probability Topics $P\left(A\mathrm{or}B\right)$ prob. of A or B prob. of A or B or both occurring
Probability Topics $P\left(A\mathrm{and}B\right)$ prob. of A and B prob. of both A and B occurring (same time)
Probability Topics $\mathrm{A\text{'}}$ A-prime, complement of A complement of A, not A
Probability Topics $P\left(\mathrm{A\text{'}}\right)$ prob. of complement of A same
Probability Topics ${G}_{1}$ green on first pick same
Probability Topics $P\left({G}_{1}\right)$ prob. of green on first pick same
Discrete Random Variables $\mathrm{PDF}$ prob. distribution function same
Discrete Random Variables $X$ X the random variable X
Discrete Random Variables $\mathrm{X~}$ the distribution of X same
Discrete Random Variables $B$ binomial distribution same
Discrete Random Variables $G$ geometric distribution same
Discrete Random Variables $H$ hypergeometric dist. same
Discrete Random Variables $P$ Poisson dist. same
Discrete Random Variables $\lambda$ Lambda average of Poisson distribution
Discrete Random Variables $\ge$ greater than or equal to same
Discrete Random Variables $\le$ less than or equal to same
Discrete Random Variables $=$ equal to same
Discrete Random Variables $\ne$ not equal to same
Continuous Random Variables $f\left(x\right)$ f of x function of x
Continuous Random Variables $\mathrm{pdf}$ prob. density function same
Continuous Random Variables $U$ uniform distribution same
Continuous Random Variables $\mathrm{Exp}$ exponential distribution same
Continuous Random Variables $k$ k critical value
Continuous Random Variables $f\left(x\right)=$ f of x equals same
Continuous Random Variables $m$ m decay rate (for exp. dist.)
The Normal Distribution $N$ normal distribution same
The Normal Distribution $z$ z-score same
The Normal Distribution $Z$ standard normal dist. same
The Central Limit Theorem $\text{CLT}$ Central Limit Theorem same
The Central Limit Theorem $\overline{X}$ X-bar the random variable X-bar
The Central Limit Theorem ${\mu }_{x}$ mean of X the average of X
The Central Limit Theorem ${\mu }_{\overline{x}}$ mean of X-bar the average of X-bar
The Central Limit Theorem ${\sigma }_{x}$ standard deviation of X same
The Central Limit Theorem ${\sigma }_{\overline{x}}$ standard deviation of X-bar same
The Central Limit Theorem $\Sigma X$ sum of X same
The Central Limit Theorem $\Sigma x$ sum of x same
Confidence Intervals $\text{CL}$ confidence level same
Confidence Intervals $\text{CI}$ confidence interval same
Confidence Intervals $\text{EBM}$ error bound for a mean same
Confidence Intervals $\text{EBP}$ error bound for a proportion same
Confidence Intervals $t$ student-t distribution same
Confidence Intervals $\text{df}$ degrees of freedom same
Confidence Intervals ${t}_{\frac{\alpha }{2}}$ student-t with a/2 area in right tail same
Confidence Intervals $\mathrm{p\text{'}}$ $\stackrel{^}{p}$ p-prime; p-hat sample proportion of success
Confidence Intervals $\mathrm{q\text{'}}$ $\stackrel{^}{q}$ q-prime; q-hat sample proportion of failure
Hypothesis Testing ${H}_{0}$ H-naught, H-sub 0 null hypothesis
Hypothesis Testing ${H}_{a}$ H-a, H-sub a alternate hypothesis
Hypothesis Testing ${H}_{1}$ H-1, H-sub 1 alternate hypothesis
Hypothesis Testing $\alpha$ alpha probability of Type I error
Hypothesis Testing $\beta$ beta probability of Type II error
Hypothesis Testing $\overline{\mathrm{X1}}-\overline{\mathrm{X2}}$ X1-bar minus X2-bar difference in sample means
${\mu }_{1}-{\mu }_{2}$ mu-1 minus mu-2 difference in population means
$P{\text{'}}_{1}-P{\text{'}}_{2}$ P1-prime minus P2-prime difference in sample proportions
${p}_{1}-{p}_{2}$ p1 minus p2 difference in population proportions
Chi-Square Distribution ${Χ}^{2}$ Ky-square Chi-square
$O$ Observed Observed frequency
$E$ Expected Expected frequency
Linear Regression and Correlation $y=a+\mathrm{bx}$ y equals a plus b-x equation of a line
$\stackrel{^}{y}$ y-hat estimated value of y
$r$ correlation coefficient same
$\epsilon$ error same
$\mathrm{SSE}$ Sum of Squared Errors same
$1.9s$ 1.9 times s cut-off value for outliers
F-Distribution and ANOVA $F$ F-ratio F ratio

#### Questions & Answers

Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!