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Chapter (1st used) | Symbol | Spoken | Meaning |
---|---|---|---|
Sampling and Data | $\sqrt{}$ | The square root of | same |
Sampling and Data | $\pi $ | Pi | 3.14159… (a specific number) |
Descriptive Statistics | $\mathrm{Q1}$ | Quartile one | the first quartile |
Descriptive Statistics | $\mathrm{Q2}$ | Quartile two | the second quartile |
Descriptive Statistics | $\mathrm{Q3}$ | Quartile three | the third quartile |
Descriptive Statistics | $\mathrm{IQR}$ | inter-quartile range | Q3-Q1=IQR |
Descriptive Statistics | $\overline{x}$ | x-bar | sample mean |
Descriptive Statistics | $\mu $ | mu | population mean |
Descriptive Statistics | $s$ ${s}_{x}$ $\mathrm{sx}$ | s | sample standard deviation |
Descriptive Statistics | ${s}^{2}$ ${s}_{x}^{2}$ | s-squared | sample variance |
Descriptive Statistics | $\sigma $ ${\sigma}_{x}$ $\mathrm{\sigma x}$ | sigma | population standard deviation |
Descriptive Statistics | ${\sigma}^{2}$ ${\sigma}_{x}^{2}$ | sigma-squared | population variance |
Descriptive Statistics | $\Sigma $ | capital sigma | sum |
Probability Topics | $\left\{\right\}$ | brackets | set notation |
Probability Topics | $S$ | S | sample space |
Probability Topics | $A$ | Event A | event A |
Probability Topics | $P\left(A\right)$ | probability of A | probability of A occurring |
Probability Topics | $P\left(A\mid B\right)$ | probability of A given B | prob. of A occurring given B has occurred |
Probability Topics | $P\left(A\mathrm{or}B\right)$ | prob. of A or B | prob. of A or B or both occurring |
Probability Topics | $P\left(A\mathrm{and}B\right)$ | prob. of A and B | prob. of both A and B occurring (same time) |
Probability Topics | $\mathrm{A\text{'}}$ | A-prime, complement of A | complement of A, not A |
Probability Topics | $P\left(\mathrm{A\text{'}}\right)$ | prob. of complement of A | same |
Probability Topics | ${G}_{1}$ | green on first pick | same |
Probability Topics | $P\left({G}_{1}\right)$ | prob. of green on first pick | same |
Discrete Random Variables | $\mathrm{PDF}$ | prob. distribution function | same |
Discrete Random Variables | $X$ | X | the random variable X |
Discrete Random Variables | $\mathrm{X~}$ | the distribution of X | same |
Discrete Random Variables | $B$ | binomial distribution | same |
Discrete Random Variables | $G$ | geometric distribution | same |
Discrete Random Variables | $H$ | hypergeometric dist. | same |
Discrete Random Variables | $P$ | Poisson dist. | same |
Discrete Random Variables | $\lambda $ | Lambda | average of Poisson distribution |
Discrete Random Variables | $\ge $ | greater than or equal to | same |
Discrete Random Variables | $\le $ | less than or equal to | same |
Discrete Random Variables | $=$ | equal to | same |
Discrete Random Variables | $\ne $ | not equal to | same |
Continuous Random Variables | $f\left(x\right)$ | f of x | function of x |
Continuous Random Variables | $\mathrm{pdf}$ | prob. density function | same |
Continuous Random Variables | $U$ | uniform distribution | same |
Continuous Random Variables | $\mathrm{Exp}$ | exponential distribution | same |
Continuous Random Variables | $k$ | k | critical value |
Continuous Random Variables | $f\left(x\right)=$ | f of x equals | same |
Continuous Random Variables | $m$ | m | decay rate (for exp. dist.) |
The Normal Distribution | $N$ | normal distribution | same |
The Normal Distribution | $z$ | z-score | same |
The Normal Distribution | $Z$ | standard normal dist. | same |
The Central Limit Theorem | $\text{CLT}$ | Central Limit Theorem | same |
The Central Limit Theorem | $\overline{X}$ | X-bar | the random variable X-bar |
The Central Limit Theorem | ${\mu}_{x}$ | mean of X | the average of X |
The Central Limit Theorem | ${\mu}_{\overline{x}}$ | mean of X-bar | the average of X-bar |
The Central Limit Theorem | ${\sigma}_{x}$ | standard deviation of X | same |
The Central Limit Theorem | ${\sigma}_{\overline{x}}$ | standard deviation of X-bar | same |
The Central Limit Theorem | $\Sigma X$ | sum of X | same |
The Central Limit Theorem | $\Sigma x$ | sum of x | same |
Confidence Intervals | $\text{CL}$ | confidence level | same |
Confidence Intervals | $\text{CI}$ | confidence interval | same |
Confidence Intervals | $\text{EBM}$ | error bound for a mean | same |
Confidence Intervals | $\text{EBP}$ | error bound for a proportion | same |
Confidence Intervals | $t$ | student-t distribution | same |
Confidence Intervals | $\text{df}$ | degrees of freedom | same |
Confidence Intervals | ${t}_{\frac{\alpha}{2}}$ | student-t with a/2 area in right tail | same |
Confidence Intervals | $\mathrm{p\text{'}}$ $\hat{p}$ | p-prime; p-hat | sample proportion of success |
Confidence Intervals | $\mathrm{q\text{'}}$ $\hat{q}$ | q-prime; q-hat | sample proportion of failure |
Hypothesis Testing | ${H}_{0}$ | H-naught, H-sub 0 | null hypothesis |
Hypothesis Testing | ${H}_{a}$ | H-a, H-sub a | alternate hypothesis |
Hypothesis Testing | ${H}_{1}$ | H-1, H-sub 1 | alternate hypothesis |
Hypothesis Testing | $\alpha $ | alpha | probability of Type I error |
Hypothesis Testing | $\beta $ | beta | probability of Type II error |
Hypothesis Testing | $\overline{\mathrm{X1}}-\overline{\mathrm{X2}}$ | X1-bar minus X2-bar | difference in sample means |
${\mu}_{1}-{\mu}_{2}$ | mu-1 minus mu-2 | difference in population means | |
$P{\text{'}}_{1}-P{\text{'}}_{2}$ | P1-prime minus P2-prime | difference in sample proportions | |
${p}_{1}-{p}_{2}$ | p1 minus p2 | difference in population proportions | |
Chi-Square Distribution | ${{\rm X}}^{2}$ | Ky-square | Chi-square |
$O$ | Observed | Observed frequency | |
$E$ | Expected | Expected frequency | |
Linear Regression and Correlation | $y=a+\mathrm{bx}$ | y equals a plus b-x | equation of a line |
$\hat{y}$ | y-hat | estimated value of y | |
$r$ | correlation coefficient | same | |
$\epsilon $ | error | same | |
$\mathrm{SSE}$ | Sum of Squared Errors | same | |
$1.9s$ | 1.9 times s | cut-off value for outliers | |
F-Distribution and ANOVA | $F$ | F-ratio | F ratio |
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