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By the end of the century northeastern Germany had quadrupled its population over that of Roman times, chiefly due to the more abundant food supply available with the use of the "moldboard" plow, introduced by the Slavs. This plow required eight oxen to pull it but it allowed three-field rotation of crops and allowed not only the production of more, but also better food, containing more amino acids and protein, thus giving the people more energy and greater stamina. (Ref. 211 ) (See also FRANCE, this chapter)


The area now known as Austria was partly controlled by the German duchies and partly by the raiding Avars.


This was the homeland of the Avars who raided in all directions from this base. Please see this section in the previous chapter.


Moravians gained independence by holding off the Avars and then they were able to stop the Franks who tried to come in from the west. After the death of their King Samo, however, this first attempt at a Slavic state in central Europe collapsed. Samo may actually have been a Frank but he had managed to unite the Czechs and some of the Wends. The people of Bohemia also repudiated Avar suzertainty and after that the Avar power declined rapidly. (Ref. 136 )


This was simply part of the Frankish kingdoms.

Western europe

Spain and portugal

Between A.D. 612 and 621, Sisebut, a well educated Visigoth monarch, reconquered most of the peninsula from the Romans and his successor, Swintilla, completed the job. Even so, the Visigoths became "Romanized" by legal unification through the Liber judiciorum of Reccesivinth after 649 and the warrior aristocracy of the Goths was united with the plutocratic-bureaucratic aristocracy of the Roman world. The common people raised sheep. (Ref. 211 ) Although the Visigoths had not used slaves in any significant degree previously, they took over the Roman custom with a vengeance and in the Code of King Erwig (680-687) there were 21 provisions giving severe penalties for harboring fugitive slaves. (Ref. 249 )

France&Netherlands and belgium (see also germany)

At the beginning of the century there were actually three separate Frank kingdoms: (a) Austrasia with a capital at Metz, lying to the east, actually in Germany and having chiefly Teutonic blood

This terminology is Toynbee's. (Ref. 220 )
; Neustria with a capital as Soissons and Gallo-Roman blood; and (c) Burgundy. The latter was united with Austrasia by King Clotaire 11 in 613, leaving only two. Partly because of the Frankish custom of rulers dividing their kingdoms among all sons, the Merovingian dynasty crumbled with a series of very weak rulers and the ministers, or major domos, began to be the actual administration heads of the government. Thus in 639 Pepin, as mayor of Austrasia, started the reorganization of the Frankish state. He and his immediate descendants gave much of the old nobles' western land to their own followers from the Rhineland, so that, in effect, France was subjected to a new Germanic invasion. Additional Notes

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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