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In the last of the century there was growing business prosperity, with particular emphasis on textiles, shoes, cheap china and glass, sugar refineries, breweries, coal and graphite mines and the great Skoda machine shop at Pilsen. Prague University had new vigor with Professor Thomas Masaryk becoming one of the greatest of Czech philosophers and patriots. He later became a member of the Austrian Parliament, promoting the Bohemian cause and in the next century was to become the first president of the Czechoslovakian Republic. In Moravia, there were riots in 1899 with the looting of Jewish and German houses so that troops had to be called out to restore order.


We noted in the last chapter that Napoleon had conquered Switzerland. In 1803 he allowed a satisfactory federal constitution and with Bonaparte's fall, the Confederation was restored. In 1815 the Congress of Vienna guaranteed the perpetual neutrality of that land and this had never been violated to date. After a short civil war in 1847 a new close national union developed and a new federal constitution was written. All tariff barriers between the cantons were removed between 1848 and 1874. The International Red Cross was formed at the Geneva Convention of 1864, chiefly due to the efforts of Jean Henri Dunant, a Swiss banker, who had happened to see a battlefield in northern Italy littered with tens of thousands of wounded soldiers lying unattended on the ground. The Red Cross insignia is the Swiss flag, with colors reversed. (Ref. 8 , 125 )

Western europe


The Napoleonic Wars brought Spain to the edge of ruin. After war with France and then against England, as a French ally, Spain's sea power was destroyed and Napoleon put his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne in 1805. In 1812 Joseph, with his Cortes (Congress), abolished the Inquisition and limited the powers of the Catholic Church. Fighting continued, however, in the Peninsular War, with Great Britain entered on the side of the Spanish people and eventually driving out the French. The locals had never accepted Joseph and Napoleon's dominion was already collapsing, anyway, so after the Peninsular War, King Ferdinand VII resumed rule and revoked the new laws regarding the church. Spanish overseas colonies were revolting, however, and the people of Spain blamed the king, so he was taken prisoner and anarchy followed, with various temporary rulers, including Isabella II, who reigned from 1833 to 1868, at first with regents. The contesting of her succession by her uncle, Don Carlos led to the Carlist Wars. In these revolts most of the Basque provinces and much of Catalonia supported Carlos. Civil wars and insurrections followed one after another until 1876, over a year after Isabella's son Alfonso XII had been proclaimed king. The economy remained critical and Spain had industry in only a few small areas. Even in 1829 the trade was only 1/3 of what it had been in 1785. The last great European famine was in Andalusia in 1882. On the death of Alfonso XII, his posthumous son Alfonso XIII reigned during the remainder of the century with his mother as regent. (Ref. 213 , 38 )

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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