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Sosiale wetenskappe: geskiedenis

Graad 6

Die pad na demokrasie in sa sedert 1910

Module 6

Swart verset in die 1960’s en 1970’s

Aktiwiteit 1:

Om bronne te gebruik oor groeiende verset in die 1970’s

[lu 1.2]

In 1959 het veral die jonger lede in die ANC weggebreek en die PAC (Pan African Congress) onder leiding van Robert Sobukwe gestig. Hul het geglo dat die ANC nie sterk genoeg optree nie. (Hul gewapende vleuel is Poqo genoem.)

Hierna sou swart verset al hoe groter en dringender word. Die tragedie by Sharpville is ‘n voorbeeld hiervan.

Sharpville

Die PAC het in 1960 landswye protes teen die paswette georganiseer. Op 21 Maart 1960 het ongeveer 10 000 swart mense by die polisiestasie in Sharpville, net buite Vereeniging, bymekaargekom om teen die paswette te betoog. Die polisie het bedreig gevoel en op hulle begin skiet en 68 betogers het gesterf en ongeveer 187 is gewond. Hierdie voorval het wêreldwye reaksie teen die SA regering veroorsaak. ‘n Nadoodse ondersoek het aan die lig gebring dat die meeste van die betogers van agter geskiet is.

Massaprotes, optogte en stakings het gevolg en 'n noodtoestand is in SA afgekondig. Meer as 22 000 mense is aangehou of gearresteer. Binne twee weke is die ANC en PAC verbied en hul leiers moes as bannelinge uit SA vlug. Oliver Tambo het die ANC se bevrydingstryd uit hul hoofkwartier in Zambië voortgesit, omdat die meeste binnelandse leiers in hegtenis geneem is.

(a) Ondersoek meegaande skets in julle groep met behulp van die W-vrae.

Bespreek eers die vrae wat volg met jou maat.

  • Wie het in opstand gekom?
  • Waar het die mense betoog?
  • Wanneer het die opstande plaasgevind?

1.4 Waarom het die mense in opstand gekom?

1.5 Wat het gebeur?

  • Watter vrae kom nog in jou gedagtes op? Skryf dit neer en ruil vrae met mekaar uit.
  • Dink aan Suid-Afrika vandag. Dink jy dié mense se drome is bewaarheid?

Toe die Republiek van SA in 1961 tot stand gekom het, is swart mense weer eens uitgesluit van die regeringsproses. Die tyd van vreedsame protes was verby en gewapende verset teen die regering het gevolg. Algaande het die ANC in 'n massabeweging verander. Lede van die ANC wat nie uit die land gevlug het nie, moes in die geheim optree. Die ANC en SAKP (Suid-Afrikaanse Kommunistiese Party) het 'n geheime vleuel, Umkonto we Sizwe ("Spies van die Volk") - bekend as MK - gestig en met bomaanvalle en sabotasie teen die regering begin. Nelson Mandela was die eerste bevelvoerder van MK.

Grafiese voorstelling van ‘n foto oor die tragedie van Sharpville

Sewentien toonaangewende ANC-leiers is egter op 11 Julie 1963 by Rivonia in Gauteng deur die polisie in hegtenis geneem, terwyl hulle 'n rewolusie teen en oorname van die regering beplan het. Walter Sisulu en Nelson Mandela was deel van die agt wat aan sabotasie tydens die Rivoniaverhoor skuldig bevind is. Laasgenoemde is op 200 aanklagte van sabotasie skuldig bevind en tot lewenslange gevangenisstraf gevonnis.

Geweld, sabotasie en bomaanvalle het toegeneem ten spyte van die regering se streng optrede. In die VVO is daar op meer sanksies teen SA besluit.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
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Daniel
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Akash Reply
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Maciej
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Abigail
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s. Reply
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
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what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geskiedenis graad 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11008/1.1
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