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Management of IP raises many issues before embarking upon the patent application process and searching for potential licensees. The appropriateness of patent protection and to what extent is important considerations along with ensuring freedom to operate. 70% of R&D in the U.S. infringes IPR of another party (WAG 2004), which can place substantial obstacles in the path of continued the development, let alone eventual commercialisation. The importance of the right of freedom to operate in the university case has been highlighted by high-profile cases such as Madey versus Duke University (Guttag 2003) in the U.S. and has led to much discussion about the legal position of educational institutions.

Historically Welsh Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have engaged in a limited amount of licensing activity with more focus given to development of spin-out companies. However, there have been instances where inventions have been licensed for significant sums. The most notable example concerns a life science technology relating to fluorescence technology used in genetic research, which was licensed by the University of Wales, College of Medicine for £710,000 (WAG 2004).

While licensing activity has been modest other mechanisms such as consultancy have been growing consistently since the mid 1990’s as shown in [link] .

Consultancy income of Welsh HEIs 1995-2002 (WAG 2004).

Spin-out companies

Furthermore companies located in university incubators have been found to be more productive (Siegel et al. 2003) along with the sense of vibrancy and catalysing effect they have for associated companies. This can assist in long-term economic development supporting the establishment and growth of successful clusters (Tornatzky 2000).

Welsh HEIs have been performing well in terms of creating spin-out companies. During 2001/02, supported by the Wales Spin-out Programme, 22 spin-outs were produced (10% of the UK total) together with a further 64 businesses started by graduates (19% of the UK total). This performance is particularly encouraging considering Wales represents 6% of the UK population.

The rate of spin-out development in Wales stuttered following this period, as it did across the whole of the UK, following changes in capital gains tax rules in 2003. These rules saw academics being liable for immediate taxation at a rate of 40% on the value of their share of equity in a spin-out company. This issue is now being addressed by the Treasury together with professional bodies representing academic commercial activity such as The University Companies Association, UNICO (2004).

Sustainable Innovation System Components

Previously we have explored the concepts of economic development, regional cluster theory and innovation. The concept of sustainable innovation has also been introduced considering the cyclical nature of economies and technologies, and how this impacts upon economic and firm development. Sustainability is also a topic of significant current interest due to the environmental and societal challenges faced across the world such as climate change and aging populations. This has drive governments and other organisations to consider how sustainable development in economic societal and environmental contexts can be effectively combined. The work of Jorna (2006) is a prime example of how this broader consideration of sustainability in innovation can be applied her work dovetails the concepts of Schumpeter’s creative destruction and economic cycles with technology cycles and the central role of knowledge creation and dissemination. Also demonstrated earlier in previous sections is how the ethos of open, collaborative, multidisciplinary and global working is critical in developing and sustaining vibrant knowledge economy clusters, this thinking was recently articulated by Nick Donofrio ( [link] ).

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A study of how a region can lever participation in a global network to accelerate the development of a sustainable technology cluster. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11417/1.2
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