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Functionalism Associated Theorist Deviance arises from:
Strain Theory Robert Merton A lack of ways to reach socially accepted goals by accepted methods
Social Disorganization Theory University of Chicago researchers Weak social ties and a lack of social control; society has lost the ability to enforce norms with some groups
Cultural Deviance Theory Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay Conformity to the cultural norms of lower-class society
Conflict Theory Associated Theorist Deviance arises from:
Unequal System Karl Marx Inequalities in wealth and power that arise from the economic system
Power Elite C. Wright Mills Ability of those in power to define deviance in ways that maintain the status quo
Symbolic Interactionism Associated Theorist Deviance arises from:
Labeling Theory Edwin Lemert The reactions of others, particularly those in power who are able to determine labels
Differential Association Theory Edwin Sutherlin Learning and modeling deviant behavior seen in other people close to the individual
Control Theory Travis Hirschi Feelings of disconnection from society

Summary

The three major sociological paradigms offer different explanations for the motivation behind deviance and crime. Functionalists point out that deviance is a social necessity since it reinforces norms by reminding people of the consequences of violating them. Violating norms can open society’s eyes to injustice in the system. Conflict theorists argue that crime stems from a system of inequality that keeps those with power at the top and those without power at the bottom. Symbolic interactionists focus attention on the socially constructed nature of the labels related to deviance. Crime and deviance are learned from the environment and enforced or discouraged by those around us.

Short answer

Pick a famous politician, business leader, or celebrity who has been arrested recently. What crime did he or she allegedly commit? Who was the victim? Explain his or her actions from the point of view of one of the major sociological paradigms. What factors best explain how this person might be punished if convicted of the crime?

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If we assume that the power elite’s status is always passed down from generation to generation, how would Edwin Sutherland explain these patterns of power through differential association theory? What crimes do these elite few get away with?

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Further research

The Skull and Bones Society made news in 2004 when it was revealed that then-President George W. Bush and his Democratic challenger, John Kerry, had both been members at Yale University. In the years since, conspiracy theorists have linked the secret society to numerous world events, arguing that many of the nation’s most powerful people are former Bonesmen. Although such ideas may raise a lot of skepticism, many influential people of the past century have been Skull and Bones Society members, and the society is sometimes described as a college version of the power elite. Journalist Rebecca Leung discusses the roots of the club and the impact its ties between decision-makers can have later in life. Read about it at (External Link) .

References

Akers, Ronald L. 1991. “Self-control as a General Theory of Crime.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology :201–11.

Cantor, D. and Lynch, J. 2000. Self-Report Surveys as Measures of Crime and Criminal Victimization . Rockville, MD: National Institute of Justice. Retrieved February 10, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Durkheim, Emile. 1997 [1893]. The Division of Labor in Society New York, NY: Free Press.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2010. “Crime in the United States, 2009.” Retrieved January 6, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Hirschi, Travis. 1969. Causes of Delinquency . Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Holding, Reynolds. 2006. “Why Can’t Felons Vote?” Time , November 21. Retrieved February 10, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Krajick, Kevin. 2004. “Why Can’t Ex-Felons Vote?” The Washington Post , August 18, p. A19. Retrieved February 10, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Laub, John H. 2006. “Edwin H. Sutherland and the Michael-Adler Report: Searching for the Soul of Criminology Seventy Years Later.” Criminology 44:235–57.

Lott, John R. Jr. and Sonya D. Jones. 2008. “How Felons Who Vote Can Tip an Election.” Fox News, October 20. Retrieved February 10, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Mills, C. Wright. 1956. The Power Elite . New York: Oxford University Press.

New York Times Editorial Staff. 2011. “Reducing Unjust Cocaine Sentences.” New York Times , June 29. Retrieved February 10, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

ProCon.org. 2009. “Disenfranchised Totals by State.” April 13. Retrieved February 10, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

ProCon.org. 2011. “State Felon Voting Laws.” April 8. Retrieved February 10, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Sampson, Robert J. and Lydia Bean. 2006. "Cultural Mechanisms and Killing Fields: A Revised Theory of Community-Level Racial Inequality." The Many Colors of Crime: Inequalities of Race, Ethnicity and Crime in America , edited by R. Peterson, L. Krivo and J. Hagan. New York: New York University Press.

Sampson, Robert J. and W. Byron Graves. 1989. “Community Structure and Crimes: Testing Social-Disorganization Theory.” American Journal of Sociology 94:774-802.

Shaw, Clifford R. and Henry McKay. 1942. Juvenile Delinquency in Urban Areas Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. 2009. “SEC Charges Bernard L. Madoff for Multi-Billion Dollar Ponzi Scheme.” Washington, DC: U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved January 6, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

The Sentencing Project. 2010. “Federal Crack Cocaine Sentencing.” The Sentencing Project: Research and Advocacy Reform . Retrieved February 12, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Shaw, Clifford R. and Henry H. McKay. 1942. Juvenile Delinquency in Urban Areas . Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Todd, Roger and Louise Jury. 1996. “Children Follow Convicted Parents into Crime.” The Independent , February 27. Retrieved February 10, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Questions & Answers

what are the need of sociology for uneducated people like velliger people who living beside the cities?
Abshar Reply
who is durkheim
Sherie Reply
Émile Durkheim One of the Founding Father (1858-1917) His ideas on the • Division of Labor • Sociological Method • Suicide • Religion
Christopher
what do you mean by the perspective of education
aditya Reply
educational perspectives is a not-for-profit international education  research organizations, which extends to institutions & organizations who wish to enroll international students, license someone who has completed their education in another country, or even offer them employment
Holly
can you suggest any sociologist who gave this idea in brief
aditya
what is optimum theory
Ghulam
Auguste Comte. The French philosopher Auguste Comte (1798–1857) First founder
Holly
Auguste Comte is seen as the father of sociology. He was well versed in Comte: Charles Darwin's Origin of the Species
Holly
The three founding fathers of sociology are Emile Durkheim, Max Weber, and Karl Marx.
Holly
there is also mother founders too who was Harriet Martineau. She was considered the "Mother" of sociology & the first to be able to translate the work of the early sociological theorists into English. Harriet's translations were very crucial to the development of American sociology.
Holly
Emile Durkheim (1858—1917) was a Frenchman sociologist. Whom rose to prominence in the late 19th and early 20thcenturies.
Holly
The optimum theroy is a population that had appeared as a reaction to the Malthusian theroy, which had criticizing the approach of the Malthusian theroy of Population, modern economists Edwin Cannan & Carr Saunders of London.
Holly
what is the subject matter of sociology?
Ajazul
the subject matter of sociology is to process human association. When Comtel came up with the name of "sociology," & parallel. it was subsequent attempts a definite content & one mode of attack was upon the proposed science has been denial.
Holly
tell me more about George Hebert Mead please
Taina
he is the schooler
Tanimu
George Herbert Mead was believed to have thought peoples develop self-images via interaction with other people. He argued that the self, which is the part of a person's personality consisting of self-awareness & self-image, is a product of social experience.
Holly
thanx a lot Holly Marie.
Ajazul
what's about the history of sociology?
Ajazul
who is George Herbert Mead ?
Ajazul
a sociologist
Taina
is father founder.
Tanimu
what's about. George Herbert Mead ?
Ajazul
who is the father of sociology? you know we are dealing with the fathers.
Tanimu
August Comte
Rhoda
Please suggest me topics for thesis?
WAJID Reply
what is the relevent important of sociology of education in a training teacher
ADAM
socio-cultural problem of single mother's ?
Sumbul
Wajid which locality do you belong to? It should be relavent to the issues you and your community experiences.
Sadiq
Adam Adamu what do you mean by a training teacher?
Sadiq
what is need of sociology in Pakistani culture
Abshar
Sumbul Khan there are numerous problums faced by the single mothers in a particular society. Most of the times when there is no support and protection, They both will be unsecure in numerous ways i.e educationaly, financialy, health wise, and will be prone to moral degradation and harrasment...
Sadiq
Is sociology a good optional subject for upsc ?
sohit
At Abshar khan, see, a layman cannot understand the society the way a sociologist did..a critical understand is necessary for solving the core issues or problems of the society.
Sumbul
On the other hand as we know that cultur is a way of life so the single mother with her children would be devalued if there is lack of morality there should be numerous factors contributing to the it, different social setup creats different cultural problems as it is a relative phenomenon.
Sadiq
At sadiq,thank you for your explanation but that's the topic name I am suggesting to Wajid for his thesis.
Sumbul
Oh! Realy anyway it is a good one.
Sadiq
sumbul why we will learning eng. Eng is not our colligue language. our culture is following English normally when we study in schools college it's will most important that we will learn English but I think this is not imptnt that if we will learn our colegue language I mean Hindi,chinese,pushto ?
Abshar
The Socio-Psychological impacts of internet uses on illiterate teenagers.
Sadiq
@Abshar see It's a truth that we are using English language more than even our own language,but today's generation want job and money(vch is must for our survival)vch our country is unfortunate wouldn't able to provide us..and fr the better standard of living v have to move in some other countries.
Sumbul
to create a peaceful environment all country members and others should come together and resolve all the problems that occurs across the countries
aditya
okkk tnx Mam
Abshar
Hey, I am very thankful for your support and guidance.
WAJID
Sadiq, My supervisor rejected that topic because many students have already done it. You can please suggest another one to me.
WAJID
when you talk of sociology, it's too large to talk about
AUDU
My supervisor rejected almost 20 topics which i have recommended.
WAJID
I am very thankful for ur better guidance and ur material
Ghulam
u can suggest sir another topics plz
Ghulam
Sociology
Ghulam
Sir tomarrow i have exam plz send me caste and class topic
Ghulam
is sociology have any relationship with geology
Ghulam
sociology is the mother of all social sciences and yes there are some basic relationship of sociology with geology.
Roohullah
yes definitely
Sadiq
geology is a general science or particular science
Ghulam
sociology has a pattern of social relationships, social interaction & culture. The term was introduced by a Frenchman called Auguste Compte during the 1830s, in which he suggested a synthetic science uniting allknowledge about human activity. It development, structure & functioning of human society
Holly
Roohullah khan, Can you please elaborate further?
WAJID
Holly, suggest me topics for thesis?
WAJID
send me topics of caste and class system
Ghulam
anybody knows Spanish🙁
Nolissa Reply
little words Google translater helps lol
Holly
this is not a language forum
Floxy
define stereotype with an example?
Bernard Reply
it's a mistaken idea or belief that several people have about something.
aditya
what kind of idea? please be more specific
Bernard
stereotypes can be seen by an over-generalized belief about a particular group of people i.e when we make quick decisions, they may be erroneous when applied to particular individuals. It can also encourage prejudice & may arise for a number of reasons.
Holly
the generalization of group of streotype because of the certain beliefs of other groups?
Bernard
Identifing someone or something based on race, ethnicity, gender, etc (generally physically) therefore (for example) if there is a Muslim kid wearing traditional clothing, you cannot identify that person as a terrorist based on their appearance. You cannot judge a book by its cover basically...
SATROHAN
if i say stereotypes based on race lead to racism, gender lead to sexism/ masculinity/feminism, and ageism like young and adults is that correct?
Bernard
What is Cultural Revivalism ?
aditya
It refers to the formation of a group identity which is around a common culture. Which is recovered after losses that are due to colonization, forced or voluntary relocation, oppression, or modernization
Holly
how is emergency of sociology linked with modernization of Europe ?
aditya Reply
hello everyone am francis
Francis Reply
what is value in sociology
aditya Reply
Its give us to know about every field of human interaction
Akak
it's the Importantance and lasting beliefs or ideals which are shared by the members of a culture about what is good or bad & desirable or undesirable. Values are deemed a major influence on which a person's behavior & attitude can serve as a broad guidelines in all situations.
Holly
what is meant by folkways
Akak
folkways are customs or conventions in everyday life, from different types of social norm & expectations for how we act. Sociology, folkways can generally be discussed in contrast to mores because they are both types of social norms & can vary from traditional behaviour or way of life.
Holly
folkways is a type of deviant that has no too strong sanctions applied when an act is committed by a person in a society.
Christopher
what are the examples of folkways
Yunusa
what is meant by inter generational and intra generational mobility
Akak
examples of folkways are to coercive force by shaping our values, beliefs, behavior, and interactions. Religions also have prohibitions on cohabitating with a romantic partner before marriage.
Holly
intergenerational mobility can refer to any changes in which family's social position between generations & contrast to intragenerational  mobility, of which is a person's social movement within his/hers lifetime.
Holly
what is social status ?
Sarah Reply
individuals possession
Akak
possession of wealth and degree ?
Sarah
human view...that is whatever u r belong too
Akak
ok thnx
Sarah
Your social status in your social environment.
Muhib
social status is an individual materialistic wealth
Sumbul
Race, birth, Caste these social status...
Dr.
Your social status is where you appear on the socialogical map and can effect everything from the schools you can go to or the way you are treated?
James
we all have a sense of system in which society, social classentails determination a person's social class, which is based on socioeconomic variables that is mainly income, wealth and education
Holly
what is social justice
Adabara
social justice is in terms a distribution of wealth, opportunities & privileges that is within a society of individuality. Which gives way to the struggle to social justice.
Holly
what is social mobility
Akak
In my opinion, it's like your ability to move up or down the social ladder in society depending on the way you handle your finances or assets
Nolissa
what is value in sociology?
aditya
Also, social mobility is attained or ascribed.
Justbe
value is the thing cherish in the society
Adu
what is belief
Ghulam
what is clan
Ghulam
Faith, for many it is belief without knowing.
Leonard
what is role
Ghulam
what is commodifiction
Ghulam
Commodify- Make natural resources a Commodity- A product for the soul purpose of profiteering.
Leonard
what is meant by social class
Akak
Established role
WAJID
recent changes in indian caste
Ghulam
what is the relevance importance of sociology of education in a training teacher ?
ADAM
what is culture
Mohammad Reply
is the total way of life
Tanimu
manners and art that are favored by social group
Twum
Man made part of environment is called culture
WAJID
defferentiat b/w sociology and anthropology.
Tanimu
what is the meaning of culture
Nithin Reply
culture in it's simplest term means the people way of life
Floxy
Culture is thd way of life people of a given society live on.
Sadiq
culture differs from society to society. when u hear or see a particular culture of a group of people. it will b easy for u to know th particular society dat has the culture. hope I tried. correction is allowed.
Floxy
man made enviorment is called culture
Ismail
man made enviorment is called culture
Ismail
defferentiat b/w culture and society
Tanimu
hello what is the different between crime and offence
Floxy Reply
crime refers to the actions of committing the mistakes but offense refers to the words of committing the mistakes
Bee
subject matter and nature of sociology ..can u plz help m
Inoto
social interaction and intergration
Tilahun
Gender issues example
Je Reply
what is the relationship between sociology and psychology...similarities and differences
NICHOLUS Reply
I'm unsure but I'm going to guess that one's studies the social interactions and environments and Psychology studies the brain and why one does react certain ways to certain things in society/ the environment and so on. It's much deeper than that but that's the surface of it I believe.
whitney
Yes Whitney, my understanding is the same. Further to your explanation, Sociologists examine problems and causes, then identify solutions. For example Durkhime (1879), his study on suicide.
Justbe
The similarities are that they both study social behaviour. They just do it from a different point of view.
Justbe
Sociology deals with the external behavior( attitude, style) while psychology with the Internal (brain)
WAJID
It's better start the dispute between these two departments.. Anyone interested
WAJID
Sociology studies the structure and function of society and what factors disturbs the social setup means a social problem while Psychology is the study of mental processes.
Sadiq
Relationship is that both provides explanation and remedies to the problems arise in social setup. Individuals affect society while society affect individual. Somtimes both approaches to same problem debffirently.
Sadiq
Psychology deals mainly with the brain buh has social values embedded under itself... sociology cannot simply move on without psychology
Barimah
Sociology is an independent discipline which have its own way of approaching towards social issues it has its founding father since 14th century Ibn e Khaldun. It is the mother of social sciences.
Sadiq
Discuss conflict perspective and give 8 references
Tsolo

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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology 2e. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6
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