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As is discussed in Section 10.3, VRM operation requires control of the current applied to each phase. For example, one control strategy for constant torque production is to apply constant current to each phase during the time that dL / m size 12{ ital "dL"/dθ rSub { size 8{m} } } {} for that phase is constant. This results in constant torque proportional to the square of the phasecurrent magnitude. The magnitude of the torque can be controlled by changing the magnitude of the phase current.

The control required to drive the phase windings of a VRM is made more complex because the phase-winding inductances change both with rotor position and with current levels due to saturation effects in the magnetic material. As a result, it is not possible in general to implement an open-loop PWM scheme based on a precalculated algorithm. Rather, pulse-width-modulation is typically accomplished through the use of current feedback. The instantaneous phase current can be measured and a switching scheme can be devised such that the switch can be turned off when the current has been found to reach a desired maximum value and turned on when the current decays to a desired minimum value. In this manner the average phase current is controlled to a predetermined function of the rotor position and desired torque.

This section has provided a brief introduction to the topic of drive systems for variable-reluctance machines. In most cases, many additional issues must be considered before a practical drive system can be implemented. For example, accurate rotor-position sensing is required for proper control of the phase excitation, and the control loop must be properly compensated to ensure its stability. In addition, the finite rise and fall times of current buildup in the motor phase windings will ultimately limit the maximum achievable rotor torque and speed.

The performance of a complete VRM drive system is intricately tied to the performance of all its components, including the VRM, its controller, and its inverter.

In this sense, the VRM is quite different from the induction, synchronous, and dc machines discussed earlier in this chapter. As a result, it is useful to design the complete drive system as an integrated package and not to design the individual components (VRM, inverter, controller, etc.) separately. The inverter configurations of Fig. 11.21 are representative of a number of possible inverter configurations which can be used in VRM drive systems. The choice of an inverter for a specific application must be made based on engineering and economic considerations as part of an integrated VRM drive system design.


This chapter introduces various techniques for the control of electric machines. The broad topic of electric machine control requires a much more extensive discussion than is possible here so our objectives have been somewhat limited. Most noticeably, the discussion of this chapter focuses almost exclusively on steady-state behavior, and the issues of transient and dynamic behavior are not considered.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
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Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
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Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
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s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
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for screen printed electrodes ?
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Damian Reply
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abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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Ramkumar Reply
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Sravani Reply
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Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Electrical machines. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10767/1.1
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