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Parole refers to a temporary release from prison or jail that requires supervision and the consent of officials. Parole is different from probation, which is supervised time used as an alternative to prison. Probation and parole can both follow a period of incarceration in prison, especially if the prison sentence is shortened.

Summary

Crime is established by legal codes and upheld by the criminal justice system. In the United States, there are three branches of the justice system: police, courts, and corrections. Although crime rates increased throughout most of the twentieth century, they are now dropping.

Short answer

Recall the crime statistics presented in this section. Do they surprise you? Are these statistics represented accurately in the media? Why, or why not?

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Further research

Is the U.S. criminal justice system confusing? You’re not alone. Check out this handy flowchart from the Bureau of Justice Statistics: (External Link)

How is crime data collected in the United States? Read about the methods of data collection and take the National Crime Victimization Survey. Visit (External Link)

References

Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2013. “Data Collection: National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS).” Bureau of Justice Statistics, n.d. Retrieved November 1, 2014 ( (External Link)&iid=245 )

Cantor, D. and Lynch, J. 2000. Self-Report Surveys as Measures of Crime and Criminal Victimization . Rockville, MD: National Institute of Justice. Retrieved February 10, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Chiricos, Ted; Padgett, Kathy; and Gertz, Mark. 2000. “Fear, TV News, and The Reality of Crime.” Criminology , 38, 3. Retrieved November 1, 2014 ( (External Link) )

Cohn, D’Verta; Taylor, Paul; Lopez, Mark Hugo; Gallagher, Catherine A.; Parker, Kim; and Maass, Kevin T. 2013. “Gun Homicide Rate Down 49% Since 1993 Peak: Public Unaware; Pace of Decline Slows in Past Decade.” Pew Research Social&Demographic Trends , May 7. Retrieved November 1, 2014 ( (External Link) )

Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2010. “Latest Hate Crime Statistics.” Retrieved February 10, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2011. “Uniform Crime Reports.” Retrieved February 10, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Holman, E. Allison; Garfin, Dana; and Silver, Roxane (2013). “Media’s Role in Broadcasting Acute Stress Following the Boston Marathon Bombings.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, November 14. Retrieved November 1, 2014 ( (External Link) )

Langton, Lynn and Michael Planty. 2011. “Hate Crime, 2003–2009.” Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved February 10, 2012 ( (External Link)&iid=1760 ).

Liptak, Adam. 2008a. “1 in 100 U.S. Adults Behind Bars, New Study Says.” New York Times , February 28. Retrieved February 10, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Liptak, Adam. 2008b. “Inmate Count in U.S. Dwarfs Other Nations’.” New York Times , April 23. Retrieved February 10, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

National Archive of Criminal Justice Data. 2010. “National Crime Victimization Survey Resource Guide.” Retrieved February 10, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Overburg, Paul and Hoyer, Meghan. 2013. “Study: Despite Drop in Gun Crime, 56% Think It’s Worse.” USA Today , December, 3. Retrieved November 2, 2014 ( (External Link) )

Saad, Lydia. 2011. “Most Americans Believe Crime in U.S. is Worsening: Slight Majority Rate U.S. Crime Problem as Highly Serious; 11% Say This about Local Crime.” Gallup: Well-Being, October 31. Retrieved November 1, 2014 ( (External Link) )

Warr, Mark. 2008. “Crime on the Rise? Public Perception of Crime Remains Out of Sync with Reality.” The University of Texas at Austin: Features, November, 10. Retrieved November 1, 2014 ( (External Link) )

Wilson, Michael and Al Baker. 2010. “Lured into a Trap, Then Tortured for Being Gay.” New York Times , October 8. Retrieved from February 10, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Questions & Answers

Happy independence day to all indians. Let we live with peace love harmony and friendliness with each other without any discrimination on the basis of religion, caste, race, class, gender, power, economic, political, professional and status. Jai hind.
manisha Reply
Respect and peace.
Leonard
hi
Al
what is sociology
Ali Reply
the study of social problem
Sanjib
Sociology is the systematic study of diverse human culture.
Jimmielyn
who is father of sociology
Surjeet Reply
seriously man. y ppl ask this ques again n again. august comte :)
manisha
Class and class structure
priyanka Reply
G S Gurye
Suraj
society is jenus headed is an animal and has two head discuss this in the lite of culture
Hajja Reply
i need the answer urgent
Hajja
where are you from
babar
i guess there is something missing in the question.. kindly write it again
hasan
What causes social stratification
Alexander
Assalamu alaikum Happy independence day to pakistani friends. Love from india..
manisha
Waalaikumussalam
Abdur
jenus? is this an English word
Nwofor
the two head i believe is language and culture
Nwofor
culture is our beliefs....
Dr.
beliefs, values, behavior
Dr.
I am a student of MSc socialogy
Kashmiri
thanks ....manisha
Rehmat
Types of Societies?
Kashmiri
hunting and gathering
Rehmat
horticultural
Rehmat
pastoral
Rehmat
industrial
Rehmat
post industrial
Rehmat
bio genetic
Rehmat
how social reseach is an approach to confirm the observations and pattern of behaviours prevailing in the society
sitta Reply
any body with answer pleaz
sitta
what is meant by human ecology?
Akak Reply
can any one define the meaning of environmental shift
Akak
what is functional theory?
Jane Reply
hi.. functional theory by word its mean how society structure and each units functions together to contribute to while its also called structural functionalism.
manisha
how each units contribute to whole*
manisha
herbert spencer seen society as body. just like each organ of body worked together to keep entire system functioning n in the same way each part or unit or structure work together to keep the entire society functioning n regulated.
manisha
what is meant by manifest function of theory
Akak
manifest functions r results of social process which can be guessed or anticipated. like college education preparing for career
manisha
what do you means by society
Mukesh Reply
given in the app itself. a group.of ppl who live in defined geographic area who interact with one another who share a common culture.
manisha
the group of people whose live togater they practice one culture one language and interaction with each other is called society.
Nawab
sociology ke bare main kuch information mil skti hai to plz bta do
Ali
Please explain Socio-economic status?
Leonard Reply
Is the Government a gang?
Leonard
what is sociology ?
Punyashlok Reply
Sociology is the subject that study the human character
Akak
Can any one explain the mores in sociology in brief
Akak
who is august comte
David
August Comte is father's of social
Abhishek
August comte was a french sociologist...
abdul
Who is the second father of sociology?
garh
emile durkhime ,one of his great successor may be called the 2nd father of sociology.......
Vignesh
Herbert Spencer
Jyoti
the third founder emile durkhiem used scientific method in in sociology
Ismail
sociology is the science of society by the father of sociology.
Joshua
Almost not accurate
abdul
who is mixweber
Baba
given in app itself sociology is study of groups n group interactions, societies n social.interaction
manisha
who is mixweber
Baba
German sociologist
Ismail
mixweber is a German sociologist also 3rd father of sociology.
Nawab
Who are the founding fathers of sociology and their contributions?
Ortema Reply
August Comte
Abhishek
Should Amerikkka have a livable minimum wage?
Leonard Reply
Is the Gov't a gang? A gang of profiteers?
Leonard
Who are the founding fathers of sociology and their contributions please?
Ortema
comte
Punyashlok
August Comte...
Nawab
why sociology become more popular than anthropology
Abhishek Reply
Sociology is present day...
Leonard
so
Abhishek
Anthropology deals with prehistoric cultures that no longer exist. Thus Sociology is more relevant because it deals with our current, existing civilizations. When studying what actually exists you can derive information much more accurately. Sociologies information is highly accurate.
Leonard
^ Sociology's
Leonard
because the scope of sociology is very wide from anthropology.
Nawab
what is ownership and control of the mass media
Gift Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology 2e. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6
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