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Back to Africa: A.D. 301 to 400

Northeast africa

Ethiopia continued to be a Christian area in communication with southern Arabia and Egypt. Axum expansion in the first half of the century was followed by a period of stagnation in the last half although Byzantine missionaries and traders continued to visit the region. Nominally under Axumite control, Nubia apparently was not really Christianized in this century. The religious and political confusion of this period is apparent in four papyri recently discovered at Qasr Ibrim. Three were written in Sahidic Coptic and the fourth in provincial Greek. The Coptic ones were all addressed to Tantani, Governor of Nubia and apparently Christian. The Greek document is from a pagan king of the Blemmyes to the king of Noubades and refers to a former supreme king of Nubia, called Silco. (Ref. 270 , 271 )

Nominally still under control of Rome, Egyptic Society, according to Toynbee (Ref. 220 ), became extinct in this century leaving no "off-spring" in any subsequent society, to date. The little intellectual activity that remained in the remnants of the Roman Empire was now centered in Byzantium, but considerable religious maneuvering continued in Alexandria. Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria, and later one of the two or three St. Cyrils, led a great struggle against Nestorianism which finally culminated in the Council of Ephesus in 431. Cyril presided and had the support of Pope Celestine 1. His doctrines, although considered orthodox at the time, were actually in part those of Monophysitism and after him this became the national faith of Egypt - eventually the Coptic Church. (Ref. 220 , 48 )

North central and northwest africa

In contrast to Egypt this part of Africa was a very busy place. In the far west Morocco was invaded and conquered by Berbers coming from the southwest, and then they even attacked the Roman holdings, using newly domesticated camels. In 427 Bonifatius, Roman military commander in north Africa, was about to be cut out of command by enemies in the emperor's court in Ravenna, so he rebelled and called upon the Vandals of Spain to come to his aid. In the following year, Asding Vandals from Spain did go to north Africa, sailing with a large fleet under King Gaiseric who proceeded to conquer most of north Africa, eventually even Carthage (A.D. 455) and then Sardinia, Corsica and the western part of Sicily. The total number of Vandals leaving Spain was probably not over 80,000 but they had the advantage of local social unrest and the cooperation of Bonifatius and thus met little local resistance. Many Berbers and the Donatist heretic group of Christians with about one-half of their bishops also helped the invaders against the Romans. The Donatists were the followers of the once Bishop of Carthage, Donatus, who denied the efficacy of sacraments administered by priests who were themselves in a state of sin, and the Church, willing to risk so much on the virtues of the clergy, repudiated the idea.

As a result of their persecution the Donatists became bands of revolutionists, at once both Christian and communist, condemning poverty and slavery and ending in fanaticism, happy to help the Vandals, who were Arian Christians. Once Gaiseric had obtained Carthage he used the facilities there to greatly augment his navy and subsequently was able to actually sack Rome, itself. Barry Fell (Ref. 66 ) believes that some orthodox Christians actually sailed to North America at this time to escape the Vandals. According to Herodotus, the Garamantes of Fezzan in the desert had horse-drawn chariots, probably obtained from Egypt. (Ref. 206 , 8 , 127 , 137 , 83 )

Among the more orthodox Christians of North Africa was St. Augustine, who had become converted from paganism and sin as a youth and who later wrote extensive theological dissertations rationalizing the religion and establishing many Catholic doctrines, as he introduced some element of Greek philosophy into Christianity. It was mentioned in the last chapter that Thomas (Ref. 213 ) considers him one of the four great "fathers" of the Catholic church. He was killed during one of the Vandals' sieges.

Subsaharan africa

In the Sudan, the roots of the great African Kingdom of Ghana may date back to A.D. 400. Certainly the town of Jenne-Jeno was prospering at the inland delta of the Niger. The eroded foundation of a house has been excavated along with pottery and urns for burial and remains of a wall about three meters wide and four or more meters high that girded the city. All of these things have been dated to this or the next century or two. In central Africa there was continued proliferation of the black people, particularly the Bantu-speakers. (Ref. 268 , 154 )

Forward to Africa: A.D. 501 to 600

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
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what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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