# 0.7 Titration  (Page 2/4)

 Page 2 / 4

## Ph plots

The pH values are plotted against the volume of titrant (acid or base). Except for weak acid – weak base, there is a sharp change in pH value at the equivalence point. The plot is almost parallel to pH axis. The sharp range at equivalence point is due to the fact that pH itself is a logarithm function of hydrogen ion concentration. The gradual change away from equivalence point is explained on the basis of buffering effect of acid or base as the case be.

## Strong acid – strong base

The reaction considered here is :

$NaOH\left(aq\right)+HCl\left(aq\right)\to NaCl\left(aq\right)+{H}_{2}O$

In the pH plot in which acid is titrant, pH of the solution in the flask is 14 due to strong base (NaOH). As strong acid is added, pH is almost flat till the equivalence point volume, when there is sharp drop in pH value. The extent of drop or rise depends on the reaction rate, which is very fast for strong acid- strong base reaction. The pH drop at equivalence point can induce color change in either of two indicators as drop in pH covers color change range for two indicators.

In the pH plot in which base is titrant, pH of the solution in the flask is near zero due to strong acid (HCl). As strong base is added, pH is almost flat in the beginning till the equivalence point volume, when there is sharp rise in pH value. The pH increase at equivalence point can induce color change in either of two indicators as rise in pH covers color change range for two indicators.

$\text{volume of HCl used}=\text{volume acid required for neutralization of NaOH}$

This means that :

$\text{geq of HCl}=\text{geq of NaOH (indicator : methyl orange or phenolphthalein)}$

## Strong acid – weak base

The reaction considered here is :

$N{H}_{4}OH\left(aq\right)+HCl\left(aq\right)\to N{H}_{4}Cl\left(aq\right)+{H}_{2}O$

In the pH plot in which acid is titrant, pH of the solution in the flask is about 11 due to weak base ( $N{H}_{4}OH$ ). As strong acid (HCl) is added, pH drops gently till the equivalence point volume. The extent of drop in pH is lesser in comparison to strong acid - strong base reaction as reaction rate is relatively slower. The pH drop at equivalence point is shorter and can induce color change in methyl orange only.

In the pH plot in which base is titrant, pH of the solution in the flask is near zero due to strong acid (HCl). As weak base is added, pH is almost flat in the beginning till the equivalence point volume, when there is sharp rise in pH value. The pH rise at equivalence point is shorter and can induce color change in methyl oranage only.

$\text{volume of HCl used}=\text{volume acid required for neutralization of}\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}N{H}_{4}OH$

This means that :

$\text{geq of HCl}=\text{geq of NH4OH (indicator : methyl orange)}$

## Weak acid – strong base

The reaction considered here is :

$C{H}_{3}COOH\left(aq\right)+NaOH\left(aq\right)\to C{H}_{3}COONa\left(aq\right)+{H}_{2}O$

In the pH plot in which acid is titrant, pH of the solution in the flask is about 14 due to strong base (NaOH). As weak acid (HCl) is added, pH drops gently till the equivalence point volume. The extent of drop in pH is lesser in comparison to strong acid - strong base reaction as reaction rate is relatively slower. The pH drop at equivalence point is shorter and can induce color change in phenolphthalein only.

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!