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    Pitfalls of the harm/beneficence test

  1. “Paralysis of Analysis" comes from considering too many consequences and not focusing only on those relevant to your decision.
  2. Incomplete Analysis results from considering too few consequences. Often it indicates a failure of moral imagination which, in this case, is the ability to envision the consequences of each action alternative.
  3. Failure to compare different alternatives can lead to a decision that is too limited and one-sided.
  4. Failure to weigh harms against benefits occurs when decision makers lack the experience to make the qualitative comparisons required in ethical decision making.
  5. Finally, justice failures result from ignoring the fairness of the distribution of harms andbenefits. This leads to a solution which may maximize benefits and minimize harms but still give rise to serious injustices in the distribution of these benefits and harms.

Reversibility test

  1. Set up the test by (i) identifying the agent, (ii) describing the action, and (iii) identifying thestakeholders and their stakes.
  2. Use the stakeholder analysis to identify the relations to be reversed.
  3. Reverse roles between the agent (you) and each stakeholder: put them in your place (as the agent) andyourself in their place (as the one subjected to the action).
  4. If you were in their place, would you still find the action acceptable?

    Cross checks for reversibility test (these questions help you to check if you have carried out the reversibility test properly.)

  • Does the proposed action treat others with respect? (Does it recognize their autonomy or circumventit?)
  • Does the action violate the rights of others? (Examples of rights: free and informed consent, privacy, freedom ofconscience, due process, property, freedom of expression)
  • Would you recommend that this action become a universal rule?
  • Are you, through your action, treating others merely as means?

    Pitfalls of the reversibility test

  • Leaving out a key stakeholder relation
  • Failing to recognize and address conflicts between stakeholders and their conflicting stakes
  • Confusing treating others with respect with capitulating to their demands (“Reversing withHitler”)
  • Failing to reach closure, i.e., an overall, global reversal assessment that takes into account all the stakeholdersthe agent has reversed with.

Steps in applying the public identification test

  • Set up the analysis by identifying the agent, describing the action, and listing the key values or virtues at play in the situation.
  • Association the action with the agent.
  • Describe what the action says about the agent as a person. Does it reveal him or her as someone associated with a virtue or a vice?

    Alternative version of public identification

  • Does the action under consideration realize justice or does it pose an excess or defect of justice?
  • Does the action realize responsibility or pose an excess or defect of responsibility?
  • Does the action realize reasonableness or pose too much or too little reasonableness?
  • Does the action realize honesty or pose too much or too little honesty?
  • Does the action realize integrity or pose too much or too little integrity?

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Corporate governance. OpenStax CNX. Aug 20, 2007 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10396/1.10
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