<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Inlab report

  1. Give your estimate of the pitch period for the voiced segment, and your prediction of the gender of the speaker.
  2. For each of the two vectors, VoicedSig and UnvoicedSig , list the average energy and number of zero-crossings.Which segment has a greater average energy? Which segment has a greater zero-crossing rate?
  3. Hand in your zero_cross function.

Phonemes

Phonemes in American English. See [link] for more details.

American English can be described in terms of a set of about 42 distinct sounds called phonemes , illustrated in [link] . They can be classified in many ways according to their distinguishingproperties. Vowels are formed by exciting a fixed vocal tract with quasi-periodic pulses of air. Fricatives are produced by forcing air through a constriction (usually towards the mouth end of thevocal tract), causing turbulent air flow. Fricatives may be voiced or unvoiced. Plosive sounds are created by making a complete closure, typically at the frontal vocal tract, building up pressure behind the closureand abruptly releasing it. A diphthong is a gliding monosyllabic sound that starts at or near the articulatory position forone vowel, and moves toward the position of another. It can be a very insightful exercise to recite the phonemes shown in [link] , and make a note of the movements you are making to create them.

It is worth noting at this point that classifying speech sounds as voiced/unvoiced is not equivalent to thevowel/consonant distinction. Vowels and consonants are letters , whereas voiced and unvoiced refer to types of speech sounds . There are several consonants, /m/ and /n/ for example, which when spoken areactually voiced sounds.

Short-time frequency analysis

As we have seen from previous sections, the properties of speech signals are continuously changing, but may be considered to be stationarywithin an appropriate time frame. If analysis is performed on a “segment-by-segment” basis, useful information about the constructionof an utterance may be obtained. The average energy and zero-crossing rate, as previously discussed, are examples of short-time featureextraction in the time-domain. In this section, we will learn how to obtain short-time frequency information from generally non-stationarysignals.

Stdtft

Download the file go.au for the following section.

A useful tool for analyzing the spectral characteristics of a non-stationary signal is the short-time discrete-time Fourier Transform , or stDTFT , which we will define by the following:

X m ( e j ω ) = n = - x ( n ) w ( n - m ) e - j ω n

Here, x ( n ) is our speech signal, and w ( n ) is a window of length L . Notice that if we fix m , the stDTFT is simply the DTFT of x ( n ) multiplied by a shifted window. Therefore, X m ( e j ω ) is a collection of DTFTs of windowed segments of x ( n ) .

As we examined in the Digital Filter Design lab, windowing in the time domain causes an undesirable ringing in the frequency domain. This effectcan be reduced by using some form of a raised cosine for the window w ( n ) .

Write a function X = DFTwin(x,L,m,N) that will compute the DFT of a windowed length L segment of the vector x .

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Purdue digital signal processing labs (ece 438). OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10593/1.4
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Purdue digital signal processing labs (ece 438)' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask