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"Sleep deprivation does not induce sister chromatid exchange in humans," a 1996 article in Mutation Research by Bjorn and others, confirms that using sister chromatid exchange (SCE) to measure genotoxic exposures in the workplace produces results within the range of normal daily variation for men and women who work night shifts as well as for ordinary daytime workers. A preliminary study by Bamezai and Kumar in 1992 reported dramatic increases of SCE after sleep deprivation. If confirmed, these results would have raised questions about whether SCE levels might be confounded when occupational medicine studies involved night shift workers.

Bjorn and his colleagues compared the SCE levels of 20 persons (10 men, 10 women). Individual baselines of SCE were estimated by the mean of the SCE per metaphase of two subsequent days (control period) and compared to that of a test period two weeks later after 24 hours without sleep. Daily questionnaires about sleep and dietary habits were used to eliminate possible influence of other factors. The rates differed slightly, but the differences were not statistically significant. Differences in conditions of cell cultures might explain differences in the two studies. Previous genotoxic exposures were assumed not to have elevated the mean baseline of individuals. Bjorn and colleagues concluded that the effect of sleep deprivation on SCE, if there is one, would be in the range of normal day-to-day variance, and does not have to be taken into account when SCE is used for genotoxic monitoring at workplaces.

Standards for citations and references

Each assignment may have its own requirements for citations and bibliography. This section details the requirements for Introductory Biology at Rice University, which reflect the conventions of many bioscience journals.

References to works by three or more authors in the text should be abbreviated ( Able et al 1986 ). When different groups of authors with the same first author and date occur, they should be cited thus ( Able, Baker&Charles 1986; Able, David&Edwards 1986 ).

The references in the bibliography should be in alphabetical order with the journal name unabbreviated. The format for papers, entire books and chapters in books is as follows:

  • Boutin, C.&Harper, J. L (1991) A comparative study of the population dynamics of five species of Veronica in natural habitats. Journal of Ecology , 79, 199-221.
  • Clarke, N.A. (1983) The ecology of dunlin (Calidris alpina 1.) wintering on the Severn estuary . PhD thesis. University of Edinburgh.
  • Pimm, S.L. (1982) Food Webs. Chapman and Hall, London.
  • Sibly, R.M. (1981) Strategies of digestion and defecation. Physiological Ecology (eds C. R. Townsend&P. Calow), pp 109-139. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.

Grading

When you give written feedback on student work, be sure to say something that specifically addresses that student paper . Avoid trite stock phrases ("interesting topic!," "nice writing," etc.) or automatic responses that offer little insight regarding improving writing ("look at second source"). To address problematic writing specifically, write notes in the margin. Margin notes are effective for engaging specifics of a paper, and show the student that his or her paper is actually being read by a human.

Read and analyze the instructor’s assignment carefully before you begin grading. Make sure the student has chosen an article from the allowed list of journals, met the format requirements, etc. If you have an assessment sheet, make sure you understand the criteria and how points are to be awarded. Bring any questions or concerns to the course instructor. Quality written feedback that supports the numerical grading will strengthen the relationship between student and writing mentor.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
how to synthesize TiO2 nanoparticles by chemical methods
Zubear
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Becoming a professional scholar. OpenStax CNX. Aug 03, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10871/1.2
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