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Management of IP raises many issues before embarking upon the patent application process and searching for potential licensees. The appropriateness of patent protection and to what extent is important considerations along with ensuring freedom to operate. 70% of R&D in the U.S. infringes IPR of another party (WAG 2004), which can place substantial obstacles in the path of continued the development, let alone eventual commercialisation. The importance of the right of freedom to operate in the university case has been highlighted by high-profile cases such as Madey versus Duke University (Guttag 2003) in the U.S. and has led to much discussion about the legal position of educational institutions.

Historically Welsh Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have engaged in a limited amount of licensing activity with more focus given to development of spin-out companies. However, there have been instances where inventions have been licensed for significant sums. The most notable example concerns a life science technology relating to fluorescence technology used in genetic research, which was licensed by the University of Wales, College of Medicine for £710,000 (WAG 2004).

While licensing activity has been modest other mechanisms such as consultancy have been growing consistently since the mid 1990’s as shown in [link] .

Consultancy income of Welsh HEIs 1995-2002 (WAG 2004).

Spin-out companies

Furthermore companies located in university incubators have been found to be more productive (Siegel et al. 2003) along with the sense of vibrancy and catalysing effect they have for associated companies. This can assist in long-term economic development supporting the establishment and growth of successful clusters (Tornatzky 2000).

Welsh HEIs have been performing well in terms of creating spin-out companies. During 2001/02, supported by the Wales Spin-out Programme, 22 spin-outs were produced (10% of the UK total) together with a further 64 businesses started by graduates (19% of the UK total). This performance is particularly encouraging considering Wales represents 6% of the UK population.

The rate of spin-out development in Wales stuttered following this period, as it did across the whole of the UK, following changes in capital gains tax rules in 2003. These rules saw academics being liable for immediate taxation at a rate of 40% on the value of their share of equity in a spin-out company. This issue is now being addressed by the Treasury together with professional bodies representing academic commercial activity such as The University Companies Association, UNICO (2004).

Sustainable Innovation System Components

Previously we have explored the concepts of economic development, regional cluster theory and innovation. The concept of sustainable innovation has also been introduced considering the cyclical nature of economies and technologies, and how this impacts upon economic and firm development. Sustainability is also a topic of significant current interest due to the environmental and societal challenges faced across the world such as climate change and aging populations. This has drive governments and other organisations to consider how sustainable development in economic societal and environmental contexts can be effectively combined. The work of Jorna (2006) is a prime example of how this broader consideration of sustainability in innovation can be applied her work dovetails the concepts of Schumpeter’s creative destruction and economic cycles with technology cycles and the central role of knowledge creation and dissemination. Also demonstrated earlier in previous sections is how the ethos of open, collaborative, multidisciplinary and global working is critical in developing and sustaining vibrant knowledge economy clusters, this thinking was recently articulated by Nick Donofrio ( [link] ).

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A study of how a region can lever participation in a global network to accelerate the development of a sustainable technology cluster. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11417/1.2
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