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This is the final installment of my three part tutorial on the CNXML language. It is currently valid for the most recent release of the language, CNXML 0.6. The keywords contain a list of the tags described in this tutorial. Along with the example code in this module there is also an example module that has been growing throughout the tutorial.


The code tag is used to insert example computer output/input as either inline text within a paragraph or as ablock of text. To see which tags it may contain or be inside, consult the CNXML Spec . The code tag has a display attribute with two possible values.

  • inline (default) - used to specify code that is inline.
  • block - used to specify code that should be in a separate block of text.

<para id='copy'>In a unix terminal the command to copy a file is<code display='inline'>cp original copy</code>.</para>

In a unix terminal the command to copy a file is cp original copy


The exercise tag provides a tag for authors to add practice problems into their documents. The exercise tag has a required id attribute and has two child tags, problem and solution .

To create more complex answers, such as multiple-choice, multiple-response, ordered-response, and text-responsequestions, QML (Questions Markup Language) may used in place of the problem and solution tags. For more information,please see the information about QML .

<exercise id='grilltest'><problem><para id='grilltestp1'>For food safety, a steak should be cooked to a minimum temperature of what?</para></problem><solution><para id='sol1p1'>160&deg; F or until the juices run clear and the meat is no longer pink.</para></solution></exercise>

For food safety, a steak should be cooked to a minimum temperature of what?

160° F or until the juices run clear and the meat is no longer pink

Cals table

CNXML uses the industry standard CALS Table Model for including tables into CNXML documents. Provided below is a brief description of the CALS tags,their attributes, and children (along with a helpful example ). For a more complete description of the CALS Table consult the CALS Table Spec .


The table tag marks the beginning of a table. It has an optional first child of title and must contain one or more tgroup tags. The table tag also has many attributes, to find out more information consult the CALS Table Spec .


The tgroup tag marks the beginning of a new portion of a table . It has a required attribute cols which is the number of columns in the tgroup . Its children tags are zero, one, or more colspec or spanspec , zero or one thead or tfoot , and one tbody tag.


The colspec tag is an empty tag that specificies the column of a table or entrytbl . The names and numbers specified as attributes are used for referencing by othertags.


The spanspec tag is an empty tag that identifies a horizontal span of columns and associatedattributes that can subsequently be referenced by its spanname for repeated use in entry or entrytbl in different rows .


The thead tag identifies the heading row of a tgroup or entrytbl . The thead tag can have zero, one, or more colspec tags and one or more row .


The tfoot tag identifies the rows of footer information that are displayed after the tbody . The tfoot tag can have zero, one, or more colspec tags and one or more row .


The tbody tag identifies the body of a tgroup or entrytbl . The tbody tag must have one or more row tags.


The row tag identifies the row of information in a thead , tbody , or tfoot . The row tag must have one or more entry or entrytbl .


The entrytbl tag takes the place of an entry , but fits into a single row of tbody in a tgroup . The content model is the same as that of a tgroup except that tfoot is ommitted and entrytbl is self-excluding. Its children tags are zero, one, or more colspec or spanspec , zero or one thead or tfoot , and one tbody tag.


The entry tag identifies an entry in a row . The entry tag contains ASCII text and zero, one, or many cite , term , cnxn , link , code , emphasis , or media .

Using cals tables

It might sound a little confusing but I think that the best way to understand a table is to look at [link] . For more information, consult the CALS Table Spec or the CNXML Spec .

<table id='grilltemp' frame='all'><title>Steak Cooking Temperatures</title><tgroup cols='2' colsep='1' rowsep='1'><thead><row><entry>Temperature (&deg;F)</entry><entry>Description</entry></row></thead><tbody><row><entry align='center'>140</entry><entry align='center'>Rare</entry></row><row><entry align='center'>150</entry><entry align='center'>Medium Rare</entry></row><row><entry align='center'>160</entry><entry align='center'>Medium</entry></row><row><entry align='center'>165</entry><entry align='center'>Medium Well</entry></row><row><entry align='center'>170</entry><entry align='center'>Well</entry></row></tbody></tgroup></table>
Steak cooking temperatures
Temperature (°F) Description
140 Rare
150 Medium Rare
160 Medium
165 Medium Well
170 Well


This concludes the CNXML tutorial.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Cnxml tutorial. OpenStax CNX. Jul 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10121/1.10
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