<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

By the end of this century, although written Latin had not changed its appearance, spoken Latin had developed a new sound pattern. Stressed vowels were drawled; unstressed vowels were dulled, weakened and often dropped. As the great civilization which had been unified by the Latin language collapsed, what Freeman Dyson (Ref. 56 ) calls a "clade" of new Latin-derived languages - French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian and a few lesser ones, grew and developed in relatively rapid fashion. At most, 20 generations separate unified Roman Europe from the Europe of well-established local languages. (Ref. 168 , 56 )

Central europe

This century saw the beginning of "Die Volkerwanderungen", meaning "peoples' migrations". The Alemans were on the upper Rhine while the Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians were along the North Sea. The Vandals, related to the Goths, were on the upper reaches of the Oder River moving (or perhaps being pushed by Goths) from the area of modern Prussia and possibly Denmark, south to the Danube in the area of Pannonia, a portion of modern Hungary. The Lombards lived between the Oder and Vistula in modern Poland and also on the lower Elbe in Germany. The Burgundians drifted westward to the Main River and the Thuringians held their ancient, central position in Bavaria and northward. All these tribes for the most part were antagonistic to each other.

In the early 370s Ostrogoths, led by Athanaric, migrated from the Balkans into Pannonia and after the Fritigen led Ostrogoths had their great victory at Adrianople, they also plundered Pannonia. The Huns were following closely and they set up camps in Pannonia also by 378, enslaving the Gepids (related to the Goths) in the process. The Huns with their flocks now occupied pasture land extending from the Caspian Sea to Hungary. In 383 Juthungi Germans invaded Austria, perhaps with permission of Maximus, but in 384 Hunnic horsemen rode through them on their way to Gaul. General Bauto, of the Roman forces, persuaded the Huns to attack the Germans and they obligingly crushed them in one great sweep before continuing on toward Gaul. Bauto then apparently got nervous about their advance and bought off the Huns with gold and they retreated to their base in Hungary. Thereafter individual Hun tribes pillaged Hungary at will. By 396 a group of Visigoths, headed by Alaric, had settled in Illyrium, the western part of present day Yugoslavia. (Ref. 139 , 127 , 136 ) In Bohemia the Germanic tribes were slowly being pushed west throughout all these early Christian centuries by the Slavs, moving in from Russia. Switzerland remained quiet under the Roman yoke.

Western europe

Spain and portugal

The Iberian Peninsula remained under Roman rule, but somewhat restlessly and occasionally the emperor had to send out expeditionary forces to put down uprisings of rebellious peasants. The Catholic church was recognized to be on equal footing with other religions, but there were many local heresies. By the end of the century there were about 9,000,000 people in this area. (Ref. 127 , 196 )

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'A comprehensive outline of world history' conversation and receive update notifications?