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Back to Europe: 0 to A.D. 100

Southern europe

Eastern mediterranean islands

Part of the Roman Empire.


The home place of the Hellenic world enjoyed an "Indian summer" which was mistaken for a "Golden Age". A thousand city-states lived peacefully together but an impalpable censorship from the Roman overseers was already slowly eliminating intellectual and artistic vitality. At the end of the century the Germanic Costobii raided down through Greece to within 14 miles of Athens. (Ref. 48 )

Upper balkans

Almost all of the present day Balkans belonged to the Roman Empire, including Dacia or Romania, Moesia or Bulgaria,Thracia and Dalmatia. The very northern portions of Romania and Bulgaria may have been outside the Roman jurisdiction, in the large area known then as Sarmatia and extending over into Russia on the north shore of the Black Sea. In the upper Balkan area, however, only Romania can be said to have been truly Latinized.


The first half of the century, under Emperors Trajan and Hadrian and their immediate successors, was one of the great periods of the empire, with general prosperity and with limited exceptions, such as the Romano-Jewish Wars and Armenian squabbles, a period of peace. The Mediterranean world had a fullness of life not seen before or since. The Greek spirit ruled the mind and the East, while the Roman spirit ruled the state and the West. Under Trajan the empire reached its greatest geographical extent, as indicated on the map and in the summary of the empire at A.D. 117 to follow.

  • AFRICA. All of Egypt and the north African coast, including Mauretania, Syrtica and Marmarica.
  • THE NEAR EAST. A portion of Arabia, all of the eastern Mediterranean coast, all of Syria, Iraq, Media in Persia, Asia Minor, including Bithynia, Pontus and Cappadocia, Cilicia, Lycaonia, Gallatia and Armenia.
    • SOUTHERN EUROPE. Greece and most of the Balkan area, including Dacia (Romania), Moesia (Bulgaria), Thracia and Dalmatia (southern Bulgaria, European Turkey, Yugoslavia and Croatia), and all of Italy and Sicily.
    • B. CENTRAL EUROPE. The Austrian-Hungary area, known then as Pannonia, Noricum and Baetia, and those parts of present day Germany which lie west of the Rhine and south of the Danube, including Bavaria, Switzerland and the parts of Germany about the Black Forest.
    • WESTERN EUROPE. Hispania (Spain and Portugal), Brittanica (England and Wales), Gallia and Belgica, etc.

The empire was surrounded by Germania, Sarmatia, Parthia and the remainder of Arabia.

A few words about the emperors themselves seems indicated. Trajan was the first emperor to have been born outside Italy, coming from a Roman colonial family living in Spain. He lived simply and was a tireless administrator who completed extensive public works including roads, buildings, bridges and aqueducts. He awarded 5,000 scholarships to needy students and he financed secondary schools and pensions for teachers. Romania was conquered because it was on the road to Byzantium at the Bosporus. When his armies reached the Indian Ocean and Trajan went home, revolts spread and his nephew, Hadrian, in command in Syria, withdrew to the Euphrates. Tacitus did his historical writing during this reign.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
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I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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