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Sosiale wetenskappe

Aardrykskunde

Graad 8

Kaartwerk

Module 17

Topografiese kaarte en foto’s

1. Topografiese kaarte en foto’s

Die groot verskil tussen ’n foto en ’n kaart is dat ’n kaart ’n vertikale “plan” van ’n gebied voorstel, terwyl ’n foto ’n werklike beeld gee.

Gewone foto’s soos ons dit ken, word geneem terwyl die kamera horisontaal vasgehou word.

Voorwerpe wat naby die kamera is, is groot en dié wat verder is, lyk kleiner. Voorwerpe op die voorgrond verberg ook inligting wat daaragter geleë is. Dit word “dooie grond” genoem. Wat agter die dubbelverdiepinggebou aangaan, is onbekend. Sulke foto’s kan nie vir die teken van kaarte gebruik word nie.

Vir die teken van kaarte word gebruik gemaak van ’n spesiale soort lugfoto. Hierdie foto’s word vertikaal afwaarts vanuit ’n spesiale vliegtuig geneem.

Bestudeer die vertikale lugfoto van Pietermaritzburg (Figuur 1). Die 1:50 000 kaart en die lugfoto toon dieselfde area aan. Jy sal dus dieselfde voorwerpe op die kaart en die lugfoto kan identifiseer.

Figuur 1

Voorbeeld:

  • Op die kaart sal ‘n tegniese kollege gevind word by 29º 35' 30" S; 30º 23' 43" O. Op die lugfoto is die posisie van die kollege gemerk S .
  • Deur die eienskappe van die kaart met die lugfoto te vergelyk word baie ander eienskappe herken.

Figuur 2

AKTIWITEIT 1

[LU 1.4]

  • Gebruik die topografiese kaart (figuur 2) en die lugfoto van Pietermaritzburg (figuur 1) en beantwoord die volgende vrae. Merk slegs die korrekte antwoord deur ‘n sirkel om die korrekte keusenommer te maak.

1. Die punt F op die lugfoto is die

a) nasionale pad.

b) grondpad.

c) spoorlyn.

2. As die woongebied van Willowton sou uitbrei sou dit groei na die

a) suide.

b) weste.

c) ooste.

3. Die belangrikste deurpad op hierdie kaart is die

a) N6.

b) N3.

c) N2.

4. Die verskynsel gemerk E op die foto is ‘n

a) watertoring.

b) atletiekbaan.

c) krieketveld.

5. Die voorwerp gemerk 2 is ‘n

a) voetpad.

b) brug.

c) rivier.

6. Die voorwerp gemerk C is ‘n

a) fabriek.

b) polisiekantoor.

c) woonhuis.

7. Die voorwerp gemerk I is ‘n

a) watertoring.

b) wagtoring.

c) silo.

Assessering

Leeruitkomstes(LUs)
LU 1
Aardrykskundige OndersoekDie leerder is in staat om ondersoekvaardighede te gebruik om aardrykskundige en omgewingsbegrippe en -prosesse te ondersoek.
Assesseringstandaarde(ASe)
Dit is duidelik wanneer die leerder:
1.1 ‘n verskeidenheid geografiese en omgewingsbronne identifiseer en selekteer wat relevant tot die navorsing is;1.2 inligting vanaf kaarte en atlasse, asook grafiese en statistiese bronne, interpreteer;1.3 afstandberekening doen op kaarte en dit vergelyk met werklike afstand;1.4 fisiese en mensgemaakte eienskappe op lugfoto’s en kaarte identifiseer.

Memorandum

AKTIWITEIT 1

  • (c) Spoorlyn.
  • (c) Ooste.

3. (b) N3.

4. (c) Krieketveld.

5. (b) Brug.

6. (c) Woonhuis.

7. (a) Watertoring.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
how to synthesize TiO2 nanoparticles by chemical methods
Zubear
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Aardrykskunde graad 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11035/1.1
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