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Soil

You might have read The Grapes of Wrath in English class at some point in time. Steinbeck’s tale of the Joads, driven out of their home by the Dust Bowl, is still playing out today. In China, as in Depression-era Oklahoma, over-tilling soil in an attempt to expand agriculture has resulted in the disappearance of large patches of topsoil.

Soil erosion and desertification are just two of the many forms of soil pollution. In addition, all the chemicals and pollutants that harm our water supplies can also leach into soil with similar effects. Brown zones where nothing can grow are common results of soil pollution. One demand the population boom makes on the planet is a requirement for more food to be produced. The so-called “Green Revolution” in the 1960s saw chemists and world aid organizations working together to bring modern farming methods, complete with pesticides, to developing countries. The immediate result was positive: food yields went up and burgeoning populations were fed. But as time has gone on, these areas have fallen into even more difficult straits as the damage done by modern methods leave traditional farmers with less than they had to start.

Dredging certain beaches in an attempt to save valuable beachfront property from coastal erosion has resulted in greater storm impact on shorelines, and damage to beach ecosystems (Turneffe Atoll Trust 2008). These dredging projects have damaged reefs, sea grass beds, and shorelines and can kill off large swaths of marine life. Ultimately, this damage threatens local fisheries, tourism, and other parts of the local economy.

Garbage

A pile of garbage and grasses is shown here.
Where should garbage go when you’ve run out of room? This is a question that is increasingly pressing the planet. (Photo courtesy of Kevin Krejci/flickr)

Where is your last cell phone? What about the one before that? Or the huge old television set your family had before flat screens became popular? For most of us, the answer is a sheepish shrug. We don’t pay attention to the demise of old items, and since electronics drop in price and increase in innovation at an incredible clip, we have been trained by their manufacturers to upgrade frequently.

Garbage creation and control are major issues for most core and industrializing nations, and it is quickly becoming one of the most critical environmental issues faced in the United States. People in the United States buy products, use them, and then throw them away. Did you dispose of your old electronics according to government safety guidelines? Chances are good you didn’t even know there are guidelines. Multiply your electronics times a few million, take into account the numerous toxic chemicals they contain, and then imagine either burying those chemicals in the ground or lighting them on fire.

Those are the two primary means of waste disposal in the United States: landfill and incineration. When it comes to getting rid of dangerous toxins, neither is a good choice. Styrofoam and plastics that many of us use every day do not dissolve in a natural way. Burn them, and they release carcinogens into the air. Their improper incineration (intentional or not) adds to air pollution and increases smog. Dump them in landfills, and they do not decompose. As landfill sites fill up, we risk an increase in groundwater contamination.

Questions & Answers

what is a religion
Zahid Reply
ll grade sociology ga notes h k
Sunil
Religion involve those things which surpasses the limit of our knowledge.
shoaib
What is Social Psychology? and why social psychology?
WILLIAM Reply
learn about the people and understand there need to live in society what there basic need and learning institutions
Ghulammurtaza
Social Psychology deals with the study of individual as part of a group or communty and how they affect each other.
Sadiq
behavior study of humans are there institutions are social psychology but if they are study about society that means the learn about there living structure
Ghulammurtaza
social psychology means it formed after combined sociology and psychology and itis new descipline.
salem
social psychology study behavior reference society
Rajesh
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Hirsi Reply
what is sociology?
Omeneke Reply
It's a field of study which studies about human Society... (to make you more clear... the psychology studies single individual where as sociology studies group of individual who forms society)
sociology is study of socity
Sadia
not only study but it study with scientific method and sociological approach
Rajesh
rite #rajesh sosa
Sadia
thanks
Rajesh
hey help me defining sociological guru's ideas
luther
what is culture
Nandala Reply
what is urbanisation
Nandala
What are the weaknesses of the conflict theory
Skeazo Reply
a person who's combination of a particular culture and ethics has a great influence on his personality.
Habibu Reply
ok
Kenneth
what is the main differences between social loafing and social facilitation
godfrey
popuation education major areas
Rakesh Reply
plx i need a better definition of culture
Alqaseem
culture, according to E. B. Tylor (1921), is defined as a complex whole which include knowledge, beliefs, arts, morals, laws,customs , and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society
Adesola
what is orientalists anyone define pls
Anand
hello, I have my sociology exam gcse next Monday and I am so stressed, can anyone give me an advice of how to revise better and lower the stress 😭
Adry Reply
what level are you in the university
raymond
Before i say something
raymond
while we await your response, studies proof that psychology speaks more to condition of such. It concern sociologist most if you talk about culture, values, family, groups, organizations, society etc and not more of single individual/mind. However, tell us your level.
William
I'm in college not uni
Adry
good evening, how did sociology people behave
chukwuka Reply
They are social thinkers.And they adapt to any situation they found themselves.Also,they study in accordance,how the society behaved.For eg,the problem of Nigeria,Boko Haram etc,which is a social problem
raymond
mean that sociology people can stop the Boko Haram issues
chukwuka
As a social thinker,you can proffer solutions to stop this mess in the northern east
raymond
Raymond you are truely a sociologist
cynthia
am just 100level students, I find myself that I don't like talking too much to people, I always like still on my own way of life, is good for a sociology students
chukwuka
According to Peter Berger the people who should “stay away” from sociology are the people that can’t take a diversity of truths, people who are afraid to discover that there is something beyond what is taught to them, people that don’t have the drive to understand that society has many different...
perspectives from which it can be understood and it all depends on where you are standing. People who are used to things being the same all the time and are afraid of change..
If you feel that you fit in... Go ahead...
who is the father of Indian sociology?
The Reply
how does a sociologist do think critically
abdulaziz Reply
what does a medical sociologist is all about
abdulaziz
yes I am from sociology department
Nath Reply
hello
rajae
hi
Nath
hii
Prahallada
I'm new here
rajae
new here as well
soely
new here as well
Daphne
hi term paradigm pls
salem
hi
SHASHI
hey
Miguel
I'm so excited to see myself here
Miguel
paradigm is a group of ideas about what can be done.
Miguel
or how something can be done.
Miguel
pliz help with( the similarities bwn the fanctionalist and the feminist theory)
luther
functional and feminist are the same value in post industrial society and development of civilization in the defernt kind of geographic area.where people live in kinship and responsible .functions are the process of change the life of societies and feminist are the right of women in modern period
Ghulammurtaza
thanks more info
luther
what is kinship ?
Robert Reply
hi
Nath
afternoon
Nath
kinship is a relation
Nath
either by blood or connection
Nath
hi
Ayeshna
helo
ASHRAF
how are you
Ayeshna
hey
Nath
am good
Nath
u?
Nath
am ok nd thanks
raymond
thank you too
Nath
hie please gie me the similarities btwn the fanctionist theory and the feminist theory
luther
functionalist see society as a human body part that functions respectively whilst feminist is a perspective that works to see the needs of men in society (patriarchy)
abdulaziz
functional theory observed the balance and equal barium of the society. they see society is deferent farm. that fiminst are work for equality of gander
Ghulammurtaza
kinship is the vector of responses behaviour of societies with each other
Ghulammurtaza
function is the slowly process for changes of societies through developed and innovation of technology and use term for balance in society
Ghulammurtaza
what joins them [to be one]
luther
kinship is the relationship establlished through marriage or blood ties.blood relatives are cobsanguinieal kins and relatives by relation of marriage are affinal kins.for eg.a woman and her son are consanguineal kins and a woman and her brother in law are affinal kins
sanjukta
blood relatives are consanguneal kins
sanjukta
sorry l mean what join the feminist pespective and the fanctionalist one
luther
freedom for women's life how can survived and what right for doing omin modernization
Ghulammurtaza
what is sociology?
Soccer Reply
sociology is a science which study the society including social relationship ,social interaction and culture......
Akak
Thanks
Ankit
but can u send me syllabus of 12 th sociology
Ankit
and scope of it
Ankit
hello.
Sushant
Scope of scology can u tell me
Ankit
what do u mean by scope of sociology?
James
in simple meaning,social scope signifies the area of study.
Sushant
describe sociology as a science
godfrey

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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology 2e. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6
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