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Air / gases

  • The movement of air is called wind.
  • Wind affects many things in the ecosystem ie speeds up evaporation, assist in pollination of plants and the dispersal of their seeds.
  • Air is composed of 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, 4% Carbon dioxide and water vapour.
    • Oxygen – used in cellular respiration and combustion and is returned to the environment by the process of photosynthesis.
    • Carbon dioxide – is a product of cellular respiration and decayed organic matter. It is removed from the atmosphere by plants during the process ofphotosynthesis.
    • Nitrogen – is needed by all living organisms for the synthesis of proteins.
    • Water vapour - the amount of water vapour found in the air remains constant on average, however, it can vary greatly from one place to another. Some parts ofthe Earth are prone to high humidity levels, why other locations have very dry air. Much of what we consider weather is caused by water vapour. The clouds inthe sky are largely made up of it, and it is the condensation of this vapour into droplets that creates rain and snow.

Edaphic factors:

Soil structure

  • Humus content is the decomposed remains of dead organic matter. It gives
  • the topsoil its dark colour. It supplies plants with nutrients and helps the soil
  • absorb (retain) water. Soils rich in humus are fertile soils.
  • Texture of soil is determined by the size of the soil particles.

Soil properties

  • How acid or alkaline a soil is, can be measured by the pH scale .
  • pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution.
  • The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. Neutral solutions have a pH value of 7 . Acid solutions have a pH value of less than 7 and alkaline solutions greater than 7 .
  • Litmus paper or universal indicator can be used to determine whether a solution is acid or alkaline.

Physiographic factors:

Aspect

  • Refers to the position of an area in relation to the sun or wind or wave action.
  • It is the direction that the slope faces ie North, South, East, West .
  • In Southern Hemisphere -
    • North facing habitats receive:
      • more solar radiation than a South facing one.
      • are warmer and drier
      • greater variety of animals
    • South facing habitats are:
      • cooler
      • have a higher water capacity
      • plant growth is luxurious

Slope

  • Also referred to as the gradient which represents the steepness of a slope.
  • Affects the rate of water run-off
    • Ie Steep slope – encourages fast run-off of water and causes soil erosion. Soils tend to be shallow and infertile and plant growth is reduced. Plants are small and few animals present
  • Gentle slope – favours slower flow of surface water, reduces erosion, and increases availability of water to plants.

Altitude

  • Is the height of the land above sea level.
  • At high altitudes :
    • the temperature is lower ,
    • the wind speed is greater,
    • and the rainfall less and more likely to get snow.
    • Less plant and animal species found
    • Plants more stunted than at lower elevations.

Biotic components

Living organisms in an ecosystem are usually grouped according to how they obtain food.

  • Autotrophs that make their own food are known as producers, while
  • Heterotrophs that eat other organisms, living or dead, are known as consumers.
  • The producers include land and aquatic plants, algae and microscopic phytoplankton in the ocean.
  • They all make their own food by using chemicals and energy sources from their environment.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Mueller Reply
Comment on the ozone depletion over the period of 1982 to 1996
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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula: life sciences grade 10. OpenStax CNX. Apr 11, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11410/1.3
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