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Software levels

Interrupt handlers

The Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) are short routines designed to turn the asynchronous events from devices (and controllers)into synchronous ones that the operating system can deal with in time. While an ISR is executing, some set of interrupts is usually blocked, which is adangerous state of affairs that should be avoided as much as possible.

ISRs generally encode the information about the interrupt into some queue that the OS checks regularly - e.g. on a contextswitch.

Device drivers

Device drivers are primarily responsible for issuing the low-level commands to the hardware that gets the hardware to do whatthe OS wants. As a result, many of them are hardware dependent.

Conceptually, perhaps the most important facet of device drivers is the conversion from logical to physical addressing. The OS maybe coded in terms of logical block numbers for a file, but it is the device driver that converts such logical addresses to real physical addresses andencodes them in a form that the hardware can understand.

Device drivers may also be responsible for programming smart controllers, multiplexing requests and de-multiplexingresponses, and measuring and reporting device performance.

Device independent os code

This is the part of the OS we've really been talking the most about. This part of the OS provides consistent device namingand interfaces to the users. It enforces protection, and does logical level caching and buffering.

In addition to providing a uniform interface, the uniform interface is sometimes pierced at this level to expose specific hardwarefeatures -- CD audio capabilities, for instance.

The device independent code also provides a consistent error mode to users, letting them know what general errors occurredwhen the device driver couldn't recover.

User code

Even the OS code is relatively rough and ready. User libraries provide simpler interfaces to I/O systems. Good examples are thestandard I/O library that provides a simplified interface to the filesystem. printf and fopen are easier to use than write and open. Specifically suchsystems handle data formatting and buffering.

Beyond that there are user level programs that specifically provide I/O services (daemons). Such programs spool data, ordirectly provide the services users require.

Files, disk management

File: a named collection of bits stored on disk. From the OS' standpoint, the file consists of a bunch of blocks stored on the device.Programmer may actually see a different interface (bytes or records), but this does not matter to the file system (just pack bytes into blocks, unpack themagain on reading).

Common addressing patterns:

  • Sequential: information is processed in order, one piece after the other. This is by far the most common mode: e.g. editor writes out new file,compiler compiles it, etc.
  • Random Access: can address any record in the file directly without passing through its predecessors. E.g. the data set for demand paging, alsodatabases.
  • Keyed: search for records with particular values, e.g. hash table, associative database, dictionary. Usually not provided by operating system. TLBis one example of a keyed search.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Operating systems. OpenStax CNX. Aug 13, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10785/1.2
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