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Social sciences

Geography

Grade 9

Sustainable utilisation of resources

Module 6

The principles of agenda 21

Activity 1:

To investigate the importance of resources, their sustainable use and the responsibility that all of us have in this regard

[lo 1.3]

Read the following passages on Agenda 21 and then answer the questions.

AGENDA 21 WORLD WIDE AND THE LOCAL AGENDA 21

Agenda 21 is a worldwide action plan for development that is socially, economically and environmentally sustainable. The term sustainable means that development can be sustained and continued, without exhausting the Earth’s natural resources. This plan was accepted at the United Nations conference on the Environment and Development that took place in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. Try to find this city on a world map and remember in which country and on which continent it is. The aim of Agenda 21 is to develop principles and programmes for a better balance between development and the Earth’s natural resources . All development depends on this. The conference proposed that the principles of Agenda 21 should be implemented throughout the world on the local level. This practical implementation programme is known as Local Agenda 21 .

The Local Agenda 21- Mandate

By 1996, most local authorities in every country, should have completed a consultative process with their people, and should have reached consensus regarding the Local Agenda 21 .

Local Agenda 21 in South Africa

First try to learn what we mean by the term ‘local’. As part of our own reconstruction and development programme, the three largest cities in South Africa (Johannesburg, Cape Town and Durban) began their own Local Agenda 21 programme that was in agreement with the Local Agenda 21 mandate in 1994/95. These early programmes started a series of activities throughout the country, so that cities such as Kimberley, Port Elizabeth, East London and Pietermaritzburg also started their own Local Agenda 21 programmes. At provincial level, provinces such as KwaZulu-Natal and Limpopo launched campaigns to ensure that local authorities became involved with Local Agenda 21 plans on a large scale. In 1998 the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism launched a National Local Agenda 21 to support, co-ordinate and link activities in an extensive network throughout the country.

Principles of Local Agenda 21 in South Africa

People-centred development. (Focus on training and empowerment of people, such as ……..)

Provision of basic needs (provision of facilities and services most needed by people, such as ……….)

Integrated planning and development instead of a sector-based approach. (The whole area and its people are developed together, not just certain aspects, e.g. ……….)

Sustainable development. The environment and resources are not negatively affected by prolonged development.

Local Agenda 21 in Durban

Durban’s Local Agenda 21 (LA21) programme was launched with the appointment of the city’s first Environmental Manager in 1994. In 1995 a special section was created for this purpose.

After extensive support was obtained from key interest groups – inclusive of the local authorities, the public sector and new development forums – the Durban Town Council of the time accepted the mandate for the implementation of the Local Agenda 21 as their responsibility in August 1994. This decision was later ratified (in 1996) by the relevant councils newly-constituted Durban Metropolitan area.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11057/1.1
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